# Generating Random Numbers without Modulo Bias

TLDR: If (RAND_MAX + 1) % n != 0, you have modulo bias. Fix it!

Let’s say you need a random number from 0 to 2 (0, 1 or 2). If you do this:

```/* LISTING 1 */
int x;
int n = 3;
x = rand() % n;
return x;
```

your code is broken, thanks to modulo bias. You will always get modulo bias whenever RAND_MAX + 1 of your rand() function is not evenly divisible by your modulus n.

For example, let’s say rand()‘s RAND_MAX is 4, so there are 5 different possible values (0, 1, 2, 3, 4). Now rand() will return each value 20% of the time, assuming that rand() has very good distribution from 0 to RAND_MAX (all modern rand() functions should have very good distribution). But since we take the modulo by 3, we get 0 40% of the time (0 and 3), 1 40% of the time (1 and 4), and 2 20% of the time (2 by itself). Visually, it is as follows:

The following code is correct:

```/* LISTING 2 */
int x;
int n = 3;
int rand_limit;
int rand_excess;
rand_excess = (RAND_MAX + 1) % n;
rand_limit = RAND_MAX - rand_excess;
while (x = rand() > rand_limit) {};
return x % n;
```

So, if RAND_MAX is 4 as in the strongvious example, rand_excess is (4 + 1) % 3, or 5 % 3, or 2. Then rand_limit becomes 4 – 2, or 2. The while statement then throws out the values 3 and 4 (i.e., x is only allowed to be 0, 1, or 2). Then, we return the modulo expression x % n. The expression x % n is redundant here only because RAND_MAX is very low for the sake of our example.

The only problem with the above code is if RAND_MAX is already the maximum value allowed (e.g., if rand() returns an unsigned 64-bit integer within the range 0 through 2^64-1). Then, (RAND_MAX + 1) would wrap back around to 0, and rand_excess would be 0. To avoid this, you can use the alternate expression

```/* LISTING 3 */
...
rand_excess = (RAND_MAX % n) + 1;
...
```

Alas there still remains a remote problem with this workaround: there is a remote chance that rand_excess will be equal to n, needlessly reducing the size of rand_limit. For example, say RAND_MAX is 8 and n is 3. Then (8 % 3) + 1 is (2 + 1), or 3. Now rand_limit is 8 – 3, or 5. But RAND_MAX of 8 is already valid because there are 9 possible values 0 through 8, and there is no modulo bias to begin with (since 9 % 3 = 0)! Luckily, this scenario should be pretty rare given that rand() is a very large number.

But remember: whenever you generate a random number, make sure to remove modulo bias! Use LISTING 2, and maybe LISTING 3 if you want. Lastly, if you know that n will not change, and you also know the size of RAND_MAX, it might be wise to simplify LISTING 2 mathematically (using constants, not expressions) and save some CPU cycles.

# The KISS PRNG (2011 version) in C and Haskell

Did you know that Dr. George Marsaglia (1924-2011), creator of the famed Diehard battery of randomness tests, devised a super-simple PRNG algorithm, just a month prior to his passing? Called the KISS PRNG (or Super-KISS, as there have been multiple KISS versions released previously by Marsaglia), this algorithm boasts a period in excess of 10^40million (10^40,000,000) — an astoundingly large number, many orders of magnitude larger than the famed Mersenne Twister‘s period (only 2^19,937 − 1, or only about 4.3 x 10^6,001 according to gcalctool). Plus, it’s so simple codewise, and also very fast.

Here’s the C implementation (adapted from Marsaglia’s own code):

```/* AUTHOR: Shinobu (zuttobenkyou.wordpress.com) */
#include <stdint.h>

typedef uint64_t u64;

#define QSIZE 0x200000
#define CNG (cng = 6906969069ULL * cng + 13579)
#define XS (xs ^= (xs << 13), xs ^= (xs >> 17), xs ^= (xs << 43))
#define KISS (B64MWC() + CNG + XS)

static u64 QARY[QSIZE];
static int j;
static u64 carry;
static u64 xs;
static u64 cng;

void randk_reset(void)
{
j = QSIZE - 1;
carry = 0;
xs = 362436069362436069ULL;
cng = 123456789987654321ULL; /* use this as the seed */
}

u64 B64MWC(void)
{
u64 t, x;
j = (j + 1) & (QSIZE - 1);
x = QARY[j];
t = (x << 28) + carry;
carry = (x >> 36) - (t < x);
return (QARY[j] = t - x);
}

/* Initialize PRNG with default seed */
void randk_seed(void)
{
u64 i;
/* Seed QARY[] with CNG+XS: */
for (i = 0; i < QSIZE; i++)
QARY[i] = CNG + XS;
}

void randk_seed_manual(u64 seed)
{
cng ^= seed;
xs ^= cng;
randk_seed();
}

void randk_warmup(int rounds)
{
int i;
/* Run through several rounds to warm up the state */
for (i = 0; i < rounds; i++)
randk();
}

/* Generate a pseudorandom 64-bit unsigned integer. */
u64 randk(void)
{
return KISS;
}
```

Simple, eh? This algorithm is actually 3 PRNG’s in one: the 64-bit Multiply-With-Carry PRNG (B64MWC()), the XOR-Shift PRNG (XS), and the simple Linear Congruential PRNG (CNG). The exorbitant period comes from the fact that this algorithm relies on three different states of the three PRNGs to generate a random number.

Now, where does Haskell come into the picture? Well, I ported the code to Haskell because I wanted a simple PRNG that was of higher quality than the default System.Random RNG. Plus, if you look into the actual source of System.Random, here is an unnerving bit of code:

```stdSplit            :: StdGen -> (StdGen, StdGen)
stdSplit std@(StdGen s1 s2)
= (left, right)
where
-- no statistical foundation for this!
left    = StdGen new_s1 t2
right   = StdGen t1 new_s2

new_s1 | s1 == 2147483562 = 1
| otherwise        = s1 + 1

new_s2 | s2 == 1          = 2147483398
| otherwise        = s2 - 1

StdGen t1 t2 = snd (next std)
```

See, the RandomGen type class requires the definition of next, split, and genRange functions (see this page). The split function’s purpose is to take one PRNG state, and give two distinct PRNG states, so that you can get multiple unique PRNG’s to work with (this comes up in functional programming in real practice — I speak from experience). The thing is, the statistical robustness of the split function for the StdGen PRNG that comes with Haskell, as can be seen in the source listing, is a bit… annoying/worrying.

Well, when I saw this, I thought: “Hey, why not use KISS? It has 3 PRNGs built into one, so when implementing split, it could just change the state of one of the PRNGs, and you’d get a *completely* different PRNG!” And so that’s exactly what I did:

```-- AUTHOR: Shinobu (zuttobenkyou.wordpress.com)
{-# LANGUAGE RecordWildCards #-}

module KISS where

import Data.Array.Unboxed
import Data.Bits
import Data.List
import Data.Word
import System.Random (RandomGen(..))

type U64 = Word64

-- | This is the last KISS-type RNG (2011) that Dr. George Marsaglia (1924-2011)
-- released to the internet before his death. The only difference with this
-- version is that the kissMWCArraySize is 0xfff (4096), instead of 0x200000
-- (2,097,152), for purposes of speed. The period of the original was
-- approximated by Marsaglia as 10^40million, which is practically infinity for
-- most, if not all, needs for everyday programs. The reduced state size for the
-- MWC algorithm from 0x200000 to 0xfff should shorten the period, but it should
-- still be excellent for general usage; because KISS combines not only MWC but
-- also CNG (Congruential) and XSHF (XOR-shift) generators, the period should
-- still be very large.
--
-- TODO: Determine period of this KISS rng.
data KISSRNG = KISSRNG
{ kissMWCArray :: UArray Int U64
, kissMWCArraySize :: U64
, kissMWCIndex :: U64
, kissMWCCarry :: U64
, kissCNG :: U64
, kissXSHF :: U64
}

kissStateSize :: U64
kissStateSize = 0xfff

roundCNG :: U64 -> U64
roundCNG cng = 6906969069 * cng + 13579

roundXSHF :: U64 -> U64
roundXSHF = round3 . round2 . round1
where
round1 b = xor b (unsafeShiftL b 13)
round2 b = xor b (unsafeShiftR b 17)
round3 b = xor b (unsafeShiftL b 43)

roundB64MWC :: KISSRNG -> KISSRNG
roundB64MWC kiss@KISSRNG{..} = kiss
{ kissMWCArray = array'
, kissMWCIndex = index'
, kissMWCCarry = carry'
}
where
index' = (kissMWCIndex + 1) .&. (kissMWCArraySize - 1)
x = kissMWCArray ! (fromIntegral index')
t = unsafeShiftL x 28 + kissMWCCarry
carry' = unsafeShiftR x 36 - (if t < x then 1 else 0)
array' = kissMWCArray // [(fromIntegral index', t - x)]

makeKISSRNG :: U64 -> KISSRNG
makeKISSRNG seed = KISSRNG
{ kissMWCArray = array (0, (fromIntegral kissStateSize - 1)) \$ zip [0..] kissArray
, kissMWCArraySize = kissStateSize
, kissMWCIndex = kissStateSize - 1
, kissMWCCarry = 0
, kissCNG = cngWarmed
, kissXSHF = xshfWarmed
}
where
-- seed the MWC array with the Congruential and XOR-Shift RNG's
(kissArray, cngWarmed, xshfWarmed) = foldl' step ([], seedCNG, seedXSHF) [0..(kissStateSize - 1)]
step (ary, cng, xshf) _ = ((cng' + xshf'):ary, cng', xshf')
where
cng' = roundCNG cng
xshf' = roundXSHF xshf
-- default Congruential RNG seed
seedCNG = 123456789987654321
-- default XOR-Shift RNG seed
seedXSHF = 362436069362436069

randKISS :: KISSRNG -> (U64, KISSRNG)
randKISS k = (kissMWC + cng + xshf, k' {kissCNG = cng, kissXSHF = xshf})
where
k' = roundB64MWC k
kissMWC = (kissMWCArray k') ! (fromIntegral \$ kissMWCIndex k')
cng = roundCNG \$ kissCNG k
xshf = roundXSHF \$ kissXSHF k

instance Show KISSRNG where
show KISSRNG{..} = "kissMWC: [kissMWC..]"
++ "\nkissMWCIdx: " ++ show kissMWCIndex ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCArray!!Idx: " ++ show (kissMWCArray ! (fromIntegral kissMWCIndex)) ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCArray!!Head: " ++ show (kissMWCArray ! 0) ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCArray!!Last: " ++ show (kissMWCArray ! (fromIntegral \$ kissStateSize - 1)) ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCCarry: " ++ show kissMWCCarry ++ "\n"
++ "kissCNG: " ++ show kissCNG ++ "\n"
++ "kissXSHF: " ++ show kissXSHF ++ "\n"

instance RandomGen KISSRNG where
next rng = (fromIntegral n, rng')
where
(n, rng') = randKISS rng
split rng = (rng1, rng2)
where
rng1 = warmupXSHF rng
rng2 = warmupMWC rng
genRange _ = (0, 0xffffffffffffffff)

warmupRNG :: RandomGen g => g -> Int -> g
warmupRNG g rounds = foldl' warmup g [1..rounds]
where
warmup g' _ = snd \$ next g'

warmupMWC :: KISSRNG -> KISSRNG
warmupMWC rng = roundB64MWC rng

warmupXSHF :: KISSRNG -> KISSRNG
warmupXSHF rng = rng { kissXSHF = roundXSHF \$ kissXSHF rng}
```

In the implementation of split, you can clearly see that we simply warm up one of PRNGs (move on to the next state in the period) to get a new PRNG. Again, since KISS depends on all three PRNGs, simply changing the state of one of the PRNGs will give you a completely different PRNG.

Oh, the only weakness of the Haskell version is that its QSIZE is only 0xfff, not 0×200000 as in the original, for performance reasons. I certainly hope someone could improve the performance of the code and release it on Hackage (my code is hereby released into the PUBLIC DOMAIN, so do what you like with it), restoring the state size to 0×200000 as in Marsaglia’s original. Also, I’m not sure how large the period is, but judging by how the XOR-Shift PRNG has a large period on its own, it should still be very, very large with a 0xfff state size for the MWC algorithm.

I would sincerely appreciate it if someone more familiar with combinatorics/compsci could tell me what the size of the period is with a 0xfff state size for the MWC.

I was also pleasantly surprised by the very good quality of KISS. I used my code to write some random bits into a file, and used the ent program to judge the entroy of it. Here are the results:

```Entropy = 7.999829 bits per byte.

Optimum compression would reduce the size
of this 1048576 byte file by 0 percent.

Chi square distribution for 1048576 samples is 248.29, and randomly
would exceed this value 60.65 percent of the times.

Arithmetic mean value of data bytes is 127.5231 (127.5 = random).
Monte Carlo value for Pi is 3.141895835 (error 0.01 percent).
Serial correlation coefficient is 0.001437 (totally uncorrelated = 0.0).
```

The results show that the KISS RNG has excellent quality random numbers. These figures make it as good (randomness-wise) as, e.g., the one based on AES encryption (AES in counter mode), which has also been analyzed with ent, as stated on the github page:

Using ent, a randomness property maker on one 1Mb sample.

cprng-AES:

Entropy = 7.999837 bits per byte.
Optimum compression would reduce the size of this 1048576 byte file by 0 percent.
Chi square distribution for 1048576 samples is 237.02.
Arithmetic mean value of data bytes is 127.3422 (127.5 = random).
Monte Carlo value for Pi is 3.143589568 (error 0.06 percent).

The rather ugly code I used to generate this file (and believe me, it took forever to generate a 1MiB file because the code is horribly unoptimized…) is below:

```-- AUTHOR: Shinobu (zuttobenkyou.wordpress.com)
{-# LANGUAGE RecordWildCards #-}

module Main where

import Data.Array.Unboxed
import Data.Bits
import Data.List
import Data.Word
import System.Random (RandomGen(..))
import qualified Data.ByteString as BS

type U64 = Word64

data KISSRNG = KISSRNG
{ kissMWCArray :: UArray Int U64
, kissMWCArraySize :: U64
, kissMWCIndex :: U64
, kissMWCCarry :: U64
, kissCNG :: U64
, kissXSHF :: U64
}

kissStateSize :: U64
kissStateSize = 0xfff

roundCNG :: U64 -> U64
roundCNG cng = 6906969069 * cng + 13579

roundXSHF :: U64 -> U64
roundXSHF = round3 . round2 . round1
where
round1 b = xor b (unsafeShiftL b 13)
round2 b = xor b (unsafeShiftR b 17)
round3 b = xor b (unsafeShiftL b 43)

roundB64MWC :: KISSRNG -> KISSRNG
roundB64MWC kiss@KISSRNG{..} = kiss
{ kissMWCArray = array'
, kissMWCIndex = index'
, kissMWCCarry = carry'
}
where
index' = (kissMWCIndex + 1) .&. (kissMWCArraySize - 1)
x = kissMWCArray ! (fromIntegral index')
t = unsafeShiftL x 28 + kissMWCCarry
carry' = unsafeShiftR x 36 - (if t < x then 1 else 0)
array' = kissMWCArray // [(fromIntegral index', t - x)]

makeKISSRNG :: U64 -> KISSRNG
makeKISSRNG seed = KISSRNG
{ kissMWCArray = array (0, (fromIntegral kissStateSize - 1)) \$ zip [0..] kissArray
, kissMWCArraySize = kissStateSize
, kissMWCIndex = kissStateSize - 1
, kissMWCCarry = 0
, kissCNG = xor cngWarmed seed
, kissXSHF = xor xshfWarmed seed
}
where
-- seed the MWC array with the Congruential and XOR-Shift RNG's
(kissArray, cngWarmed, xshfWarmed) = foldl' step ([], seedCNG, seedXSHF) [0..(kissStateSize - 1)]
step (ary, cng, xshf) _ = ((cng' + xshf'):ary, cng', xshf')
where
cng' = roundCNG cng
xshf' = roundXSHF xshf
-- default Congruential RNG seed
seedCNG = 123456789987654321
-- default XOR-Shift RNG seed
seedXSHF = 362436069362436069

randKISS :: KISSRNG -> (U64, KISSRNG)
randKISS k = (kissMWC + cng + xshf, k' {kissCNG = cng, kissXSHF = xshf})
where
k' = roundB64MWC k
kissMWC = (kissMWCArray k') ! (fromIntegral \$ kissMWCIndex k')
cng = roundCNG \$ kissCNG k
xshf = roundXSHF \$ kissXSHF k

instance Show KISSRNG where
show KISSRNG{..} = "kissMWC: [kissMWC..]"
++ "\nkissMWCIdx: " ++ show kissMWCIndex ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCArray!!Idx: " ++ show (kissMWCArray ! (fromIntegral kissMWCIndex)) ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCArray!!Head: " ++ show (kissMWCArray ! 0) ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCArray!!Last: " ++ show (kissMWCArray ! (fromIntegral \$ kissStateSize - 1)) ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCCarry: " ++ show kissMWCCarry ++ "\n"
++ "kissCNG: " ++ show kissCNG ++ "\n"
++ "kissXSHF: " ++ show kissXSHF ++ "\n"

instance RandomGen KISSRNG where
next rng = (fromIntegral n, rng')
where
(n, rng') = randKISS rng
split rng = (rng1, rng2)
where
rng1 = warmupXSHF rng
rng2 = warmupMWC rng
genRange _ = (0, 0xffffffffffffffff)

warmupRNG :: RandomGen g => g -> Int -> g
warmupRNG g rounds = foldl' warmup g [1..rounds]
where
warmup g' _ = snd \$ next g'

warmupMWC :: KISSRNG -> KISSRNG
warmupMWC rng = roundB64MWC rng

warmupXSHF :: KISSRNG -> KISSRNG
warmupXSHF rng = rng { kissXSHF = roundXSHF \$ kissXSHF rng}

main :: IO ()
main = do
let
rng = makeKISSRNG 0
(bytes1MiB, _) = genBytesKISS 0x100000 rng
BS.writeFile "data" bytes1MiB

genBytesKISS :: U64 -> KISSRNG -> (BS.ByteString, KISSRNG)
genBytesKISS len kissrng = foldl' step (BS.empty, kissrng) [1..(div len 8)] -- divide by 8, b/c e.g., to generate 8 bytes, we only need 1 U64
where
step (bs, rng) _ = (foldl' BS.snoc bs \$ octets u64, rng')
where
(u64, rng') = randKISS rng

smallerChunks :: [U64] -> [Word8]
smallerChunks = concatMap octets

-- | Get a number and split it up into 8 8-bit parts (64 bits total).
octets :: (Bits a, Integral a) => a -> [Word8]
octets w = map (\n -> fromIntegral \$ shiftR w n) . reverse \$ take 8 [0,8..]
```

Here are the C and Haskell standalone versions that prove that the Haskell port behaves in the same way as the C version, given the right starting seed values and state size (both 0xfff for the MWC PRNG):

C standalone version (compile with gcc -o ckiss kiss.c):

```/* AUTHOR: Shinobu (zuttobenkyou.wordpress.com) */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <stdint.h>

typedef uint64_t u64;

#define QSIZE 0xfff
#define CNG (cng = 6906969069ULL * cng + 13579)
#define XS (xs ^= (xs << 13), xs ^= (xs >> 17), xs ^= (xs << 43))
#define KISS (B64MWC() + CNG + XS)

static u64 QARY[QSIZE];
static int j;
static u64 carry;
static u64 xs;
static u64 cng;

u64 B64MWC(void)
{
u64 t, x;
j = (j + 1) & (QSIZE - 1);
x = QARY[j];
t = (x << 28) + carry;
carry = (x >> 36) - (t < x);
return (QARY[j] = t - x);
}

/* Initialize PRNG with default seed */
void randk_seed(void)
{
u64 i;
j = QSIZE - 1;
carry = 0;
xs = 362436069362436069ULL;
cng = 123456789987654321ULL;
/* Seed QARY[] with CNG+XS: */
for (i = 0; i < QSIZE; i++)
QARY[i] = CNG + XS;
}

/* Generate a pseudorandom 64-bit unsigned integer. */
u64 randk(void)
{
return KISS;
}

int main(void)
{
randk_seed();
printf("randk_seed called!\n");
printf("KISS idx: %"PRIu64"\n", j);
printf("qary[idx] is: %"PRIu64"\n", QARY[j]);
printf("qary[0] is: %"PRIu64"\n", QARY[0]);
printf("qary[QSIZE - 1] is: %"PRIu64"\n", QARY[QSIZE - 1]);
printf("carry: %"PRIu64"\n", carry);
printf("cng: %"PRIu64"\n", cng);
printf("xs: %"PRIu64"\n", xs);
u64 x = KISS;
printf("\nKISS called! KISS num is: %"PRIu64"\n", x);
printf("\nKISS idx: %"PRIu64"\n", j);
printf("qary[idx] is: %"PRIu64"\n", QARY[j]);
printf("qary[0] is: %"PRIu64"\n", QARY[0]);
printf("qary[QSIZE - 1] is: %"PRIu64"\n", QARY[QSIZE - 1]);
printf("carry: %"PRIu64"\n", carry);
printf("cng: %"PRIu64"\n", cng);
printf("xs: %"PRIu64"\n", xs);

printf("x + 18334599312639636657 is: %"PRIu64"\n", x + 18334599312639636657ULL);
}
```

```-- AUTHOR: Shinobu (zuttobenkyou.wordpress.com)
{-# LANGUAGE RecordWildCards #-}

module KISS where

import Data.Array.Unboxed
import Data.Bits
import Data.List
import Data.Word
import System.Random (RandomGen(..))

type U64 = Word64

data KISSRNG = KISSRNG
{ kissMWCArray :: UArray Int U64
, kissMWCArraySize :: U64
, kissMWCIndex :: U64
, kissMWCCarry :: U64
, kissCNG :: U64
, kissXSHF :: U64
}

kissStateSize :: U64
kissStateSize = 0xfff

roundCNG :: U64 -> U64
roundCNG cng = 6906969069 * cng + 13579

roundXSHF :: U64 -> U64
roundXSHF = round3 . round2 . round1
where
round1 b = xor b (unsafeShiftL b 13)
round2 b = xor b (unsafeShiftR b 17)
round3 b = xor b (unsafeShiftL b 43)

roundB64MWC :: KISSRNG -> KISSRNG
roundB64MWC kiss@KISSRNG{..} = kiss
{ kissMWCArray = array'
, kissMWCIndex = index'
, kissMWCCarry = carry'
}
where
index' = (kissMWCIndex + 1) .&. (kissMWCArraySize - 1)
x = kissMWCArray ! (fromIntegral index')
t = unsafeShiftL x 28 + kissMWCCarry
carry' = unsafeShiftR x 36 - (if t < x then 1 else 0)
array' = kissMWCArray // [(fromIntegral index', t - x)]

makeKISSRNG :: U64 -> KISSRNG
makeKISSRNG seed = KISSRNG
{ kissMWCArray = array (0, (fromIntegral kissStateSize - 1)) \$ zip [0..] kissArray
, kissMWCArraySize = kissStateSize
, kissMWCIndex = kissStateSize - 1
, kissMWCCarry = 0
, kissCNG = cngWarmed
, kissXSHF = xshfWarmed
}
where
-- seed the MWC array with the Congruential and XOR-Shift RNG's
(kissArray, cngWarmed, xshfWarmed) = foldl' step ([], seedCNG, seedXSHF) [0..(kissStateSize - 1)]
step (ary, cng, xshf) _ = ((cng' + xshf'):ary, cng', xshf')
where
cng' = roundCNG cng
xshf' = roundXSHF xshf
-- default Congruential RNG seed
seedCNG = 123456789987654321
-- default XOR-Shift RNG seed
seedXSHF = 362436069362436069

randKISS :: KISSRNG -> (U64, KISSRNG)
randKISS k = (kissMWC + cng + xshf, k' {kissCNG = cng, kissXSHF = xshf})
where
k' = roundB64MWC k
kissMWC = (kissMWCArray k') ! (fromIntegral \$ kissMWCIndex k')
cng = roundCNG \$ kissCNG k
xshf = roundXSHF \$ kissXSHF k

instance Show KISSRNG where
show KISSRNG{..} = "kissMWC: [kissMWC..]"
++ "\nkissMWCIdx: " ++ show kissMWCIndex ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCArray!!Idx: " ++ show (kissMWCArray ! (fromIntegral kissMWCIndex)) ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCArray!!Head: " ++ show (kissMWCArray ! 0) ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCArray!!Last: " ++ show (kissMWCArray ! (fromIntegral \$ kissStateSize - 1)) ++ "\n"
++ "kissMWCCarry: " ++ show kissMWCCarry ++ "\n"
++ "kissCNG: " ++ show kissCNG ++ "\n"
++ "kissXSHF: " ++ show kissXSHF ++ "\n"

instance RandomGen KISSRNG where
next rng = (fromIntegral n, rng')
where
(n, rng') = randKISS rng
split rng = (rng1, rng2)
where
rng1 = warmupXSHF rng
rng2 = warmupMWC rng
genRange _ = (0, 0xffffffffffffffff)

warmupRNG :: RandomGen g => g -> Int -> g
warmupRNG g rounds = foldl' warmup g [1..rounds]
where
warmup g' _ = snd \$ next g'

warmupMWC :: KISSRNG -> KISSRNG
warmupMWC rng = roundB64MWC rng

warmupXSHF :: KISSRNG -> KISSRNG
warmupXSHF rng = rng { kissXSHF = roundXSHF \$ kissXSHF rng}

main :: IO ()
main = do
let rng = makeKISSRNG 0
putStrLn \$ show rng
```

EDIT May 3, 2012: Sorry about the somewhat redundant-looking code listings, but I’m too lazy/busy to clean them up.
EDIT May 4, 2012: Alternate period number for the Mersenne Twister, for easier comparison of period size with KISS.

# Improved Autocall Script

I’ve updated the Autocall Ruby script I’ve mentioned various times before by porting it to Zsh and adding a TON of features. The following posts are now obsolete:

If you haven’t read my previous posts on this topic, basically, Autocall is a script that I wrote to automate executing an arbitrary command (from the shell) any time some file is modified. In practice, it is very useful for any small/medium project that needs to compile/build something out of source code. Typical use cases are for LilyPond files, LaTeX/XeTeX, and C/C++ source code.

Anyway, the script is now very robust and much more intelligent. It now parses options and flags instead of stupidly looking at ARGV one at a time. Perhaps the best new feature is the ability to kill processes that hang. Also, you can now specify up to 9 different commands with 9 instances of the “-c” flag (additional instances are ignored). Commands 2-9 are accessible manually via the numeric keys 2-9 (command 1 is the default). This is useful if you have, for instance, different build targets in a makefile. E.g., you could do

```\$ autocall -c "make" -c "make -B all" -c "make clean" -l file_list
```

to make things a bit easier.

I use this script all the time — mostly when working with XeTeX files or compiling source code. It works best in a situation where you have to do something X whenever files/directories Y changes in any way. Again, the command to be executed is arbitrary, so you could use it to call some script X whenever a change is detected in a file/directory. If you use it with LaTeX/XeTeX/TeX, use the “-halt-on-error” option so that you don’t have to have autocall kill it (only available with the -k flag). The copious comments should help you get started. Like all my stuff, it is not licensed at all — it’s released into the PUBLIC DOMAIN, without ANY warranties whatsoever in any jurisdiction (use at your own risk!).

```#!/bin/zsh
# PROGRAM: autocall
# AUTHOR: Shinobu (http://zuttobenkyou.wordpress.com)
#
#
# DESCRIPTION:
#
# Autocall watches (1) a single file, (2) directory, and/or (3) a text file
# containing a list of files/directories, and if the watched files and/or
# directories become modified, runs the (first) given command string. Multiple
# commands can be provided (a total of 9 command strings are recognized) to
# manually execute different commands.
#
#
# USAGE:
#
# See msg("help") function below -- read that portion first!
#
#
# USER INTERACTION:
#
# Press "h" for help.
# Pressing a SPACE, ENTER, or "1" key forces execution of COMMAND immediately.
# Keys 2-9 are hotkeys to extra commands, if there are any.
# Press "c" for the command list.
# To exit autocall gracefully, press "q".
#
#
# DEFAULT SETTINGS:
#
# (-w) DELAY    = 5
# (-x) FACTOR   = 4
#
#
# EXAMPLES:
#
# Execute "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" every time "report.tex" or "ch1.tex" is
# modified (if line count changes in either file; modification checked every 5
# seconds by default):
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -F report.tex -f ch1.tex
#
# Same, but only look at "ch1.tex" (useful, assuming that report.tex includes
# ch1.tex), and automatically execute every 4 seconds:
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -F ch1.tex -w 1 -x 4
#       (-x 0 or -x 1 here would also work)
#
# Same, but also automatically execute every 20 (5 * 4) seconds:
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -F ch1.tex -x 4
#
# Same, but automatically execute every 5 (5 * 1) seconds (-w is 5 by default):
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -F ch1.tex -x 1
#
# Same, but automatically execute every 1 (1 * 1) second:
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -F ch1.tex -w 1 -x 1
#
# Same, but automatically execute every 17 (1 * 17) seconds:
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -F ch1.tex -w 1 -x 17
#
# Same, but for "ch1.tex", watch its byte size, not line count:
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -b ch1.tex -w 1 -x 17
#
# Same, but for "ch1.tex", watch its timestamp instead (i.e., every time
# this file is saved, the modification timestamp will be different):
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -f ch1.tex -w 1 -x 17
#
# Same, but also look at the contents of directory "images/ocean":
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -f ch1.tex -d images/ocean -w 1 -x 17
#
# Same, but also look at the contents of directory "other" recursively:
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -f ch1.tex -d images/ocean -D other -w 1 -x 17
#
# Same, but look at all files and/or directories (recursively) listed in file
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -l watchlist -w 1 -x 17
#
# Same, but also look at "newfile.tex":
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -l watchlist -f newfile.tex -w 1 -x 17
#
# Same, but also allow manual execution of "make clean" with hotkey "2":
#    autocall -c "pdflatex -halt-on-error report.tex" -c "make clean" -l watchlist -f newfile.tex -w 1 -x 17
#
###############################################################################
###############################################################################

#-----------------#
# Local functions #
#-----------------#

msg () {
case \$1 in
"help")
echo "
autocall: Usage:

autocall [OPTIONS]

Required parameter:
-c COMMAND      The command to be executed (put COMMAND in quotes). Note that
COMMAND can be a set of multiple commands, e.g. \"make clean;
make\". You can also specify multiple commands by invoking
-c COMMAND multiple times -- the first 9 of these are set to
hotkeys 1 through 9, if present. This is useful if you want to
have a separate command that is available and can only be
executed manually.

One or more required parameters (but see -x below):
-f FILE         File to be watched. Modification detected by time.
-F FILE         File to be watched. Modification detected by line-size.
-b FILE         File to be watched. Modification detected by bytes.
-d DIRECTORY    Directory to be watched. Modification detected by time.
-D DIRECTORY    Directory to be watched, recursively. Modification
detected by time.
-l FILE         Text file containing a list of files/directories (each on
its own line) to be watched (directories listed here are
watched recursively). Modification is detected with 'ls'.

Optional parameters:
-w DELAY        Wait DELAY seconds before checking on the watched
files/directories for modification; default 5.
-t TIMEOUT      If COMMAND does not finish execution after TIMEOUT seconds,
send a SIGTERM signal to it (but do nothing else afterwards).
-k KDELAY       If COMMAND does not finish execution after TIMEOUT,
then wait KDELAY seconds and send SIGKILL to it if COMMAND is
still running. If only -k is given without -t, then -t is
automatically set to the same value as TIMEOUT.
-x FACTOR       Automatically execute the command repeatedly every DELAY *
FACTOR seconds, regardless of whether the watched
files/directories were modified. If FACTOR is zero, it is set
to 1. If -x is set, then -f, -d, and -l are not required (i.e.,
if only the -c and -x options are specified, autocall will
simply act as a while loop executing COMMAND every 20 (or
more if FACTOR is greater than 1) seconds). Since the
formula is (DELAY * FACTOR) seconds, if DELAY is 1,
FACTOR's face value itself, if greater than 0, is the seconds
amount.
-a              Same as \`-x 1'
-v              Show version number and exit (regardless of other parameters).
"
exit 0
;;
"version")
echo "autocall version 1.0"
exit 0
;;
*)
echo "autocall: \$1"
exit 1
;;
esac
}

is_number () {
if [[ \$(echo \$1 | sed 's/^[0-9]\+//' | wc -c) -eq 1 ]]; then
true
else
false
fi
}

autocall_exec () {
timeout=\$2
killdelay=\$3
col=""
case \$4 in
1) col=\$c1 ;;
2) col=\$c2 ;;
3) col=\$c3 ;;
4) col=\$c4 ;;
5) col=\$c5 ;;
6) col=\$c6 ;;
*) col=\$c1 ;;
esac
echo "\nautocall:\$c2 [\$(date --rfc-3339=ns)]\$ce\$col \$5\$ce"
if [[ \$# -eq 7 ]]; then
diff -u0 -B -d <(echo "\$6") <(echo "\$7") | tail -n +4 | sed -e "/^[@-].\+/d" -e "s/\(\S\+\s\+\S\+\s\+\S\+\s\+\S\+\s\+\)\(\S\+\s\+\)\(\S\+\s\+\S\+\s\+\S\+\s\+\)/\1\$c1\2\$ce\$c2\3\$ce/" -e "s/^/  \$c1>\$ce /"
echo
fi
echo "autocall: calling command \`\$c4\$1\$ce'..."
# see the "z" flag under PARAMTER EXPANSION under "man ZSHEXPN" for more info
if [[ \$tflag == true || \$kflag == true ]]; then
# the 'timeout' command gives nice exit statuses -- it gives 124 if
# command times out, but if the command exits with an error of its own,
# it gives that error number (so if the command doesn't time out, but
# exits with 4 or 255 or whatever, it (the timeout command) will exit

# note: if kflag is true, then tflag is always true
com_exit_status=0
if [[ \$kflag == true ]]; then
eval timeout -k \$killdelay \$timeout \$1 2>&1 | sed "s/^/  \$col>\$ce /"
com_exit_status=\$pipestatus[1]
else
eval timeout \$timeout \$1 2>&1 | sed "s/^/  \$col>\$ce /"
com_exit_status=\$pipestatus[1]
fi
if [[ \$com_exit_status -eq 124 ]]; then
echo "\n\${c6}autocall: command timed out\$ce"
elif [[ \$com_exit_status -ne 0 ]]; then
echo "\n\${c6}autocall: command exited with error status \$com_exit_status\$ce"
else
echo "\n\${c1}autocall: command executed successfully\$ce"
fi
else
eval \$1 2>&1 | sed "s/^/  \$col>\$ce /"
com_exit_status=\$pipestatus[1]
if [[ \$com_exit_status -ne 0 ]]; then
echo "\n\${c6}autocall: command exited with error status \$com_exit_status\$ce"
else
echo "\n\${c1}autocall: command executed successfully\$ce"
fi
fi
}

#------------------#
# Global variables #
#------------------#

# colors
c1="\x1b[1;32m" # bright green
c2="\x1b[1;33m" # bright yellow
c3="\x1b[1;34m" # bright blue
c4="\x1b[1;36m" # bright cyan
c5="\x1b[1;35m" # bright purple
c6="\x1b[1;31m" # bright red
ce="\x1b[0m"

coms=()
delay=5
xdelay_factor=4
f=()
F=()
b=()
d=()
D=()
l=()
l_targets=()
wflag=false
xflag=false
tflag=false
kflag=false
timeout=0
killdelay=0

tstampf="" # used to DISPLAY modification only for -f flag
linestamp="" # used to DETECT modification only for -f flag
tstampF="" # used to detect AND display modifications for -F flag
tstampb="" # used to DISPLAY modification only for -b flag
bytestamp="" # used to DETECT modification only for -b flag
tstampd="" # used to detect AND display modifications for -d flag
tstampD="" # used to detect AND display modifications for -D flag
tstampl="" # used to detect AND display modifications for -l flag

tstampf_new=""
linestamp_new=""
tstampF_new=""
tstampb_new=""
bytestamp_new=""
tstampd_new=""
tstampD_new=""
tstampl_new=""

#----------------#
# PROGRAM START! #
#----------------#

#---------------#
# Parse options #
#---------------#

# the leading ":" in the opstring silences getopts's own error messages;
# the colon after a single letter indicates that that letter requires an
# argument

# first parse for the presence of any -h and -v flags (while silently ignoring
# the other recognized options)
while getopts ":c:w:f:F:b:d:D:l:t:k:x:ahv" opt; do
case "\$opt" in
h)  msg "help" ;;
v)  msg "version" ;;
*) ;;
esac
done
# re-parse from the beginning again if there were no -h or -v flags
OPTIND=1
while getopts ":c:w:f:F:b:d:D:l:t:k:x:a" opt; do
case "\$opt" in
c)
com_binary=\$(echo "\$OPTARG" | sed 's/ \+/ /g' | sed 's/;/ /g' | cut -d " " -f1)
msg "invalid command \`\$com_binary'"
else
coms+=("\$OPTARG")
fi
;;
w)
if \$(is_number "\$OPTARG"); then
if [[ \$OPTARG -gt 0 ]]; then
wflag=true
delay=\$OPTARG
else
msg "DELAY must be greater than 0"
fi
else
msg "invalid DELAY \`\$OPTARG'"
fi
;;
f)
if [[ ! -f "\$OPTARG" ]]; then
msg "file \`\$OPTARG' does not exist"
else
f+=("\$OPTARG")
fi
;;
F)
if [[ ! -f "\$OPTARG" ]]; then
msg "file \`\$OPTARG' does not exist"
else
F+=("\$OPTARG")
fi
;;
b)
if [[ ! -f "\$OPTARG" ]]; then
msg "file \`\$OPTARG' does not exist"
else
b+=("\$OPTARG")
fi
;;
d)
if [[ ! -d "\$OPTARG" ]]; then
msg "directory \`\$OPTARG' does not exist"
else
d+=("\$OPTARG")
fi
;;
D)
if [[ ! -d "\$OPTARG" ]]; then
msg "directory \`\$OPTARG' does not exist"
else
D+=("\$OPTARG")
fi
;;
l)
if [[ ! -f \$OPTARG ]]; then
msg "file \`\$OPTARG' does not exist"
else
l+=("\$OPTARG")
fi
;;
t)
tflag=true
if \$(is_number "\$OPTARG"); then
if [[ \$OPTARG -gt 0 ]]; then
timeout=\$OPTARG
else
msg "TIMEOUT must be greater than 0"
fi
else
msg "invalid TIMEOUT \`\$OPTARG'"
fi
;;
k)
kflag=true
if \$(is_number "\$OPTARG"); then
if [[ \$OPTARG -gt 0 ]]; then
killdelay=\$OPTARG
else
msg "TIMEOUT must be greater than 0"
fi
else
msg "invalid KDELAY \`\$OPTARG'"
fi
;;
x)
xflag=true
if \$(is_number "\$OPTARG"); then
if [[ \$OPTARG -gt 0 ]]; then
xdelay_factor=\$OPTARG
elif [[ \$OPTARG -eq 0 ]]; then
xdelay_factor=1
else
msg "invalid FACTOR \`\$OPTARG'"
fi
fi
;;
a) xflag=true ;;

msg "missing argument for option \`\$OPTARG'"
;;
*)
msg "unrecognized option \`\$OPTARG'"
;;
esac
done

#-----------------#
# Set misc values #
#-----------------#

if [[ \$kflag == true && \$tflag == false ]]; then
tflag=true
timeout=\$killdelay
fi

#------------------#
# Check for errors #
#------------------#

# check that the given options are in good working order
if [[ -z \$coms[1] ]]; then
msg "help"
elif [[ (-n \$f && -n \$d && -n \$D && -n \$l) && \$xflag == false ]]; then
echo "autocall: see help with -h"
msg "at least one or more of the (1) -f, -d, -D, or -l paramters, or (2) the -x parameter, required"
fi

#-------------------------------#
# Record state of watched files #
#-------------------------------#

if [[ -n \$F ]]; then
if [[ \$#F -eq 1 ]]; then
linestamp=\$(wc -l \$F)
else
linestamp=\$(wc -l \$F | head -n -1) # remove the last "total" line
fi
tstampF=\$(ls --full-time \$F)
fi
if [[ -n \$f ]]; then
tstampf=\$(ls --full-time \$f)
fi
if [[ -n \$b ]]; then
if [[ \$#b -eq 1 ]]; then
bytestamp=\$(wc -c \$b)
else
bytestamp=\$(wc -c \$b | head -n -1) # remove the last "total" line
fi
tstampb=\$(ls --full-time \$b)
fi
if [[ -n \$d ]]; then
tstampd=\$(ls --full-time \$d)
fi
if [[ -n \$D ]]; then
tstampD=\$(ls --full-time -R \$D)
fi
if [[ -n \$l ]]; then
for listfile in \$l; do
if [[ ! -f \$listfile ]]; then
msg "file \`\$listfile ' does not exist"
else
if [[ ! -e "\$line" ]]; then
msg "\`\$listfile': file/path \`\$line' does not exist"
else
l_targets+=("\$line")
fi
done < \$listfile # read contents of \$listfile!
fi
done
tstampl=\$(ls --full-time -R \$l_targets)
fi

#----------------------#
# Begin execution loop #
#----------------------#
# This is like Russian Roulette (where "firing" is executing the command),
# except that all the chambers are loaded, and that on every new turn, instead
# of picking the chamber randomly, we look at the very next chamber. After
# every chamber is given a turn, we reload the gun and start over.
#
# If we detect file/directory modification, we pull the trigger. We can also
# pull the trigger by pressing SPACE or ENTER. If the -x option is provided,
# the last chamber will be set to "always shoot" and will always fire (if the
# trigger hasn't been pulled by the above methods yet).

if [[ \$xflag == true && \$xdelay_factor -le 1 ]]; then
xdelay_factor=1
fi
com_num=1
for c in \$coms; do
echo "autocall: command slot \$com_num set to \`\$c4\$coms[\$com_num]\$ce'"
let com_num+=1
done
echo "autocall: press keys 1-\$#coms to execute a specific command"
if [[ \$wflag == true ]]; then
echo "autocall: modification check interval set to \$delay sec"
else
echo "autocall: modification check interval set to \$delay sec (default)"
fi
if [[ \$xflag == true ]]; then
echo "autocall: auto-execution interval set to (\$delay * \$xdelay_factor) = \$((\$delay*\$xdelay_factor)) sec"
fi
if [[ \$tflag == true ]]; then
echo "autocall: TIMEOUT set to \$timeout"
if [[ \$kflag == true ]]; then
echo "autocall: KDELAY set to \$killdelay"
fi
fi
echo "autocall: press ENTER or SPACE to execute manually"
echo "autocall: press \`c' for command list"
echo "autocall: press \`h' for help"
echo "autocall: press \`q' to quit"
key=""
while true; do
for i in {1..\$xdelay_factor}; do
#------------------------------------------#
# Case 1: the user forces manual execution #
#------------------------------------------#
# read a single key from the user
read -s -t \$delay -k key
case \$key in
# note the special notation \$'\n' to detect an ENTER key
\$'\n'|" "|1)
autocall_exec \$coms[1] \$timeout \$killdelay 4 "manual execution"
key=""
continue
;;
2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9)
if [[ -n \$coms[\$key] ]]; then
autocall_exec \$coms[\$key] \$timeout \$killdelay 4 "manual execution"
key=""
continue
else
echo "autocall: command slot \$key is not set"
key=""
continue
fi
;;
c)
com_num=1
echo ""
for c in \$coms; do
echo "autocall: command slot \$com_num set to \`\$c4\$coms[\$com_num]\$ce'"
let com_num+=1
done
key=""
continue
;;
h)
echo "\nautocall: press \`c' for command list"
echo "autocall: press \`h' for help"
echo "autocall: press \`q' to exit"
com_num=1
for c in \$coms; do
echo "autocall: command slot \$com_num set to \`\$c4\$coms[\$com_num]\$ce'"
let com_num+=1
done
echo "autocall: press keys 1-\$#coms to execute a specific command"
echo "autocall: press ENTER or SPACE or \`1' to execute first command manually"
key=""
continue
;;
q)
echo "\nautocall: exiting..."
exit 0
;;
*) ;;
esac

#------------------------------------------------------------------#
# Case 2: modification is detected among watched files/directories #
#------------------------------------------------------------------#
if [[ -n \$f ]]; then
tstampf_new=\$(ls --full-time \$f)
fi
if [[ -n \$F ]]; then
if [[ \$#F -eq 1 ]]; then
linestamp_new=\$(wc -l \$F)
else
linestamp_new=\$(wc -l \$F | head -n -1) # remove the last "total" line
fi
tstampF_new=\$(ls --full-time \$F)
fi
if [[ -n \$b ]]; then
if [[ \$#b -eq 1 ]]; then
bytestamp_new=\$(wc -c \$b)
else
bytestamp_new=\$(wc -c \$b | head -n -1) # remove the last "total" line
fi
tstampb_new=\$(ls --full-time \$b)
fi
if [[ -n \$d ]]; then
tstampd_new=\$(ls --full-time \$d)
fi
if [[ -n \$D ]]; then
tstampD_new=\$(ls --full-time -R \$D)
fi
if [[ -n \$l ]]; then
tstampl_new=\$(ls --full-time -R \$l_targets)
fi
if [[ -n \$f && "\$tstampf" != "\$tstampf_new" ]]; then
autocall_exec \$coms[1] \$timeout \$killdelay 1 "change detected" "\$tstampf" "\$tstampf_new"
tstampf=\$tstampf_new
continue
elif [[ -n \$F && "\$linestamp" != "\$linestamp_new" ]]; then
autocall_exec \$coms[1] \$timeout \$killdelay 1 "change detected" "\$tstampF" "\$tstampF_new"
linestamp=\$linestamp_new
tstampF=\$tstampF_new
continue
elif [[ -n \$b && "\$bytestamp" != "\$bytestamp_new" ]]; then
autocall_exec \$coms[1] \$timeout \$killdelay 1 "change detected" "\$tstampb" "\$tstampb_new"
bytestamp=\$bytestamp_new
tstampb=\$tstampb_new
continue
elif [[ -n \$d && "\$tstampd" != "\$tstampd_new" ]]; then
autocall_exec \$coms[1] \$timeout \$killdelay 1 "change detected" "\$tstampd" "\$tstampd_new"
tstampd=\$tstampd_new
continue
elif [[ -n \$D && "\$tstampD" != "\$tstampD_new" ]]; then
autocall_exec \$coms[1] \$timeout \$killdelay 1 "change detected" "\$tstampD" "\$tstampD_new"
tstampD=\$tstampD_new
continue
elif [[ -n \$l && "\$tstampl" != "\$tstampl_new" ]]; then
autocall_exec \$coms[1] \$timeout \$killdelay 1 "change detected" "\$tstampl" "\$tstampl_new"
tstampl=\$tstampl_new
continue
fi

#-----------------------------------------------------#
# Case 3: periodic, automatic execution was requested #
#-----------------------------------------------------#
if [[ \$xflag == true && \$i -eq \$xdelay_factor ]]; then
autocall_exec \$coms[1] \$timeout \$killdelay 3 "commencing auto-execution (\$((\$delay*\$xdelay_factor)) sec)"
fi
done
done

# vim:syntax=zsh
```

# Poor Man’s Debugging in C++

Disclaimer: I suspect that this post won’t be useful to anyone who really knows how to debug a program — but hey, the procedure I describe is so simple, and has no learning curve!

I am a novice C++ programmer. Recently, I’ve been using a simple trick to see which portions of my code are being accessed or not. Simply include the cassert header in your code, like so:

`#include <cassert>`

Now, include the statement assert(0); in the part of your code that you suspect is causing your program to crash. The assert() macro aborts your program if the condition given is zero or false — so if we hard-code a failing argument, as in assert(0), your program will terminate consistently, upon executing that particular assert(0) statement.

The cool part: if your code executes the assert(0) statement, then that means that, up to that point in your code, your program worked perfectly fine. On the other hand, if you cannot get your program to abort with assert(0), this means that your program hangs or crashes before getting to the “assert(0)” statement ; thus, you can just move this “assert(0)” statement up (“up” as in an earlier point of time in the manner your code is executed), and repeat the procedure above to get closer to the bug.

So, for example, if you have a FOR loop, and inside this FOR loop, the first thing you put in is assert(0), and nothing happens, this means that the FOR loop isn’t even being executed at all! Similarly, simply put in assert(0) inside a function, to see whether that function is being called; if it IS being called, your program will abort with assert(0).

As a general practice, you could put in many assert() statements in your control flow code, so that they only execute if the statement inside assert() is true.

# Netbeans 6.0.1 on Elyssa – Ruby, Rails, C/C++ Projects

Some weeks ago, the Ubuntu people quietly upgraded their Netbeans package on their repositories from version 5.5 to 6.0.1. For me, this is great, because I don’t have to download shell install scripts from the Netbeans website any more (the current 6.1 not being much of a facelift from version 6.0.1). However, you’ll notice that 6.0.1 from Synaptic does not support the creation of projects other than Java or some other “Samples” in the New Project dialog box. To remedy this, simply go to Tools -> Plugins -> Available Plugins, and check off the boxes that you want to use. For me, I added the Ruby and Rails, Ruby Extra Hints, and C/C++ plugins. Now, I can create (and open existing) projects that are based on Ruby, Rails, or C/C++, and use all of the functionality of the IDE associated with those languages! You might also want to go to the Tools -> Plugins -> Updates tab to install some of the “core” updates to the general IDE.