Arch Linux + Xmonad

I finally got around to installing Arch on my desktop yesterday. At first I installed XFCE, and then Xmonad, and then I decided to dump XFCE altogether and just use Xmonad for all my computing needs. Xmonad is tricky to configure, so I only have a very basic xmonad.hs file (it’s the template config file found on the Xmonad wiki pages, minus the parts that give me errors on Xmonad 0.8.1).

I think tiling window managers like Xmonad are really the only way to go. I was getting sick of doing ALT+MOUSE2 to resize my windows to make most of my screen real estate on XFCE. I really like how my windows perfectly line up into neat groups. I haven’t even touched any of the great extensions out there for Xmonad yet.

In other news: I started using vimperator. It’s really neat once you spend 1 day with it. The biggest advantage for me: I don’t have to click on History -> Recently closed tabs -> tab to open up a tab I accidentally deleted. All I do instead now is just type ‘u’! And I don’t do CTRL+T, CTRL+K to do my searches — instead it’s now just ‘t searchterm’ or ‘t a packagename’ (where the ‘a’ is a keyword for the Arch Package Repository search engine). Woohoo!

UPDATE January 28, 2010: So it’s been just over 1 year since I’ve used Xmonad on Arch. Some pro’s and cons of using Xmonad:


  • Excellent use case for dual monitors — since windows instantaneously move & maximize between two (or more) monitors, the awkward feeling of seeing a window with fat monitor bezel “dividing” it up never happens. (In other words, a tiling WM makes a monitor’s bezel width irrelevant.)
  • Probably the best way to research something online while working on a problem. You can open up multiple windows and switch between them instantly. Whenever I’m researching an idea (usu. a school research project or a computer programming-related problem) I have multiple Firefox browsers maximized in various workspaces. A tiling WM + multiple workspaces (FYI, I have 22 workspaces — 1 through 0 in the horizontal numeric keys and F1 through F12) is a lot like having an “expandable” desk — if you run out of space in the current one, you just go grab the next empty one and put more stuff there. Marathon, 4, 5+ hour research/programming sessions have not resulted in my need to have more than 10 workspaces (but I still like having 22 of them).
  • You can do away with an omnipresent “status bar” for the clock, network bandwidth useage, CPU usage, etc., and instead have full-screen versions of such monitoring programs run all the time. For example, I have F12 (the 22nd workspace) set to display htop full screen, F11 to iftop and alsamixer, F10 to alpine (mail viewer), F9 to weechat (IRC), and F8 to ncmpcpp. Having many workspaces frees you from using pesky, real-estate cluttering programs like conky to keep track of your system. I don’t use any kind of status bar like dzen or xmobar whatsoever (I just don’t need to).
  • Encourages you to live in the terminal, since there are no desktop icons or menus. In the course of a year I’ve learned some very useful console commands, and it’s made me appreciate more of the GNU in GNU/Linux.
  • The tiling environment is probably the best one for doing computer programming — it’s easy to instantly launch a new terminal right below your current window to test the binary/script you just compiled/wrote.
  • Xmonad has never crashed on me. (It’s come somewhat close to crashing in cases where I tried to run some PC games over WINE, when the game wanted to change to a different full-screen resolution (yuck) than the one already set by (one of my) monitors. But it’s never crashed.) I’ve never experienced my mouse not responding or my Xmonad workspace-switching hotkeys failing on me. It’s never crashed. Ever.


  • In the early days of Xmonad (v. 0.8.1), updates to GHC would sometimes break Xmonad’s configuration files. Xmonad would start and function normally, but changes to the ~/.xmonad/xmonad.hs configuration file would not be recognized by Xmonad. However, this had to do with Arch’s packaging process and the lack of synchronization between Arch’s packages and the Haskell community. I haven’t experienced any significant problems at all since v.0.9.1 came out, so, this is a non-issue.
  • Some windows are naturally designed to “float” (not become maximized and tiled), especially small apps like galculator or agave. Such apps have to be manually configured to float every time in your xmonad.hs config file. Doing so requires that you use the “xprop” command and parse everything manually — a bit annoying each time you do it, but thankfully after 20 or so of these customizations you won’t have to be bothered with this for a good while.
  • To make most out of a tiling WM, you will have to learn to live in the terminal. That means knowing your ~/.zshrc or ~/.bashrc intimately well, and coordinating your shell aliases to work well with Xmonad (e.g., like how I have “of” aliased to “sudo poweroff” — or how I have “usbon” aliased to “sudo mount -w -t vfat -o uid=shinobu,gid=shinobu /dev/sdc1 /mnt/media-flash”). I even had to make a custom ZSH function called univ_open() to satisfy my needs. And because everything in Xmonad is heavily keyboard-shortcut-driven, use of the mouse becomes somewhat annoying. Thus I keep getting annoyed by things that are mouse-centric, like any app, or even galculator to a degree. But even if I could do everything from the keyboard, the problem is that many programs do not allow you to easily change the default key bindings — such as apvlv, mirage, alpine, htop, iftop, alsamixer, rtorrent, etc. You have to learn the different key bindings for all these programs.

Pros or cons depending on whether you are a geek:

  • Since there is no status bar or task tray like GNOME/KDE/etc., that means that you have to figure out how to access very low-level stuff manually. These are things like setting the volume, changing the monitor brightness, sleeping or shutting the computer off, mounting/unmounting USB devices and CD/DVD media. Thus, I have to have Xmonad hotkeys to lower/raise/mute the volume and change the brightness (for my laptops). To turn the computer off, I have “of” bound to “sudo poweroff” and “ofo” bound to “sudo reboot” (I had to learn these console commands online — as they are distro-specific).  Unless you’re a geek like me, you’re going to have a hard time trying to get everything working smoothly. (Another example of something I had to learn online: I have to type “& disown” after typing up a command to start up a GUI, since otherwise my current terminal can’t do anything until the GUI app is exited.) I had to learn commands like ssh, du, df, mount, and umount to get all the information/functionality I’d expect from a regular DE like GNOME. On the other hand, learning these commands have made me work faster and better than ever. So in short, if you’re a geek, a tiling WM helps you learn more essential UNIX-y commands, but if you’re a regular average Joe, a tiling WM is probably not what you want.
  • Customizing Xmonad is somewhat of a challenge at first. It helps if you know some Haskell (only after learning what Haskell lists are did I add 13 more workspaces to the default 9, while still maintaining the mod + key and mod + shift + key functionality to those 13 new windows, in the way the keys are physically lined up on the keyboard (i.e., the ‘0’ key is mapped to workspace 10, not 1)). Unfortunately, there are so many ways that you can slice Xmonad — much like the task of customizing your ~/.vimrc or your ~/.zshrc. If you’re a geek, you’ll enjoy taking small steps to add additional functionality here and there as you go along. But for the average computer user, customizing everything to your liking will be difficult.

Overall though, I am glad I made the switch to a tiling WM. Whenever I find myself sitting in front of a non-tiling WM, I shudder to think of how I used to do all my work (internet-based research, especially, with all those overlapping windows!). I cannot imagine doing any real work without a tiling WM. The only use case I’ve not really done any serious testing with Xmonad is digital content creation — i.e., using GIMP or Blender for digital multimedia work. GIMP is currently awkward to use on Xmonad because of the default floating windows (the 3 that start up by default, plus the many floating dialog boxes). Blender currently does not support multiple monitors, so dual-head setups like mine suffer from it. However, the next GIMP version (2.8) is supposed to support single-window mode. And Blender 2.6 is supposed to support multiple monitors. So things are only going to get better with Xmonad/tiling WMs.

UPDATE June 16, 2010: Here are some more reasons why using a tiling WM (Xmonad in my case) is so great:

  • A better IDE: Because Xmonad is a tiling WM, you make constant use of the keyboard to move around various windows. This means that, suddenly, everything on your workspace becomes “unified” by Xmonad. For example, I remember using Netbeans once when I started programming again a few years ago. I remember the various features of that IDE, such as a file browser, build window, etc. I’ve since switched to Vim for editing any text file, and have realized that with Xmonad, my entire workspace is my IDE! I just create one window for Vim, a terminal for file browsing (any shell, when used intelligently with enough super-concise aliases and shell expansion, beats using a dedicated file browser program) and general-purpose file navigation (with the ack and find commands), another terminal for compiling, another terminal (or two or three) for irb or ghci if I’m working with Ruby or Haskell, a Firefox window for viewing online help (documentation, API, etc.), a PDF-viewer for that interesting computer science article, maybe another window for a calculator (perhaps on a different workspace)… and now, all the various windows serve a distinct purpose. Everything comes together nicely to make to create an evolving IDE. Every time I sit down to do some fun programming projects in my free time, I create only those parts of the IDE that I need. Nothing is wasted. Again, the fact that I can switch between all the various windows (and resize them to emphasize the important ones — Xmonad does this with “layouts” which can be customized) with a single unified set of hotkeys defined by Xmonad’s configuration file makes it all work seamlessly. No more pressing F5 to execute some elongated, intra-(Netbeans, Eclipse, etc.)-compile command — I just move to the compile-dedicated terminal window and press UP for the last build command) and ENTER to do the same thing, but better because nothing separates you from the compiler.
  • Universal access to various “function” keys: The so-called “mod key” that you will come to love and which Xmonad makes extensive use of (you can define multiple mod keys, btw), is always interpreted first by Xmonad, regardless of which workspace you are in or what window you are currently focused on. This is true even for full-screened windows (e.g., mplayer). This means that you can essentially roll your own set of “function” keys to control the volume, screen brightness, and audio player (mpd, in my case). Here’s a snippet of code from my xmonad.hs for this task:

    — ncmpcpp (mpd) controls
    , ((mod4Mask .|. controlMask, xK_o     ), spawn “ncmpcpp toggle”)
    , ((mod4Mask .|. controlMask, xK_h     ), spawn “ncmpcpp stop; ncmpcpp play”) — “reset” current song to beginning
    , ((mod4Mask .|. controlMask, xK_j     ), spawn “ncmpcpp next”)
    , ((mod4Mask .|. controlMask, xK_k     ), spawn “ncmpcpp prev”)
    , ((mod4Mask .|. controlMask, xK_l     ), spawn “ncmpcpp stop”)
    , ((mod4Mask .|. controlMask, xK_semicolon ), spawn “ncmpcpp play”)
    — volume controls
    , ((modm              , xK_backslash ), spawn “amixer -q set Master toggle”)
    , ((modm              , xK_minus     ), spawn “amixer -q set Master 3- unmute”)
    , ((modm              , xK_equal     ), spawn “amixer -q set Master 3+ unmute”)
    — screen brightness (call the script “~/syscfg/shellscripts/sys/”, which is symlinked to /usr/bin/brightness to toggle screen brightness — entry for this in “sudo visudo” allows us to do it as sudo w/o password prompt)
    , ((modm     .|. shiftMask, xK_backslash ), spawn “sudo brightness”) — toggle brightness (100 or 0)

    Since my Xmonad config is spread out across all my personal systems, I have essentially created “unified” hotkeys. Now, the fact that I use different keyboards with different keys, different multimedia keys, etc. does not matter any more, as my Xmonad config file ensures that, at least for mpd, volume, and screen brightness, I can always rely on the same hotkeys to manipulate them. This is a godsend for those pesky multimedia keys on laptops which are usually quirky and don’t always work (and worst of all, are located in different places on different laptop models, if at all). Notice that all of the above commands to change mpd state, volume, and brightness do not produce any screen noise; everything is done silently so that you can focus on what’s important (the movie playing full-screen, the article you’re reading, the code you’re reviewing, and so on). You can see how I’ve mapped the ncmpcpp commands close to the “home row” of keys for extra convenience. All of this is made possible by Xmonad’s straightforward, no-frills keybindings (good luck syncing your keybindings from XFCE/GNOME/KDE/any-other-bloated-DE across your systems). (Btw, the script is a custom zsh script that I’ve written myself — you will find it in my post here.)

Update April 19, 2011: I use pentadactyl instead of vimperator now, as I noted a while ago in this post. Anyway, I’m still using Xmonad! Since learning Haskell earlier this year, I’ve managed to customize my configuration file quite a bit. If you know Haskell, then choosing Xmonad is a no-brainer; the xmonad.hs configuration file is a Haskell source file that is used as a top-level file which pulls in all the necessary Xmonad dependencies to generate the xmonad executable! This means that you can do pretty much anything you want with Xmonad. The cool thing about customizing xmonad.hs is that, even if it gets very complex, the generated xmonad executable will still be rock-solid (unless you shoot yourself in the foot doing stupid things, which is very hard to do in Haskell). This is in sharp contrast to other programs where extensive customization generally leads to less stability. Oh, and Xmonad still hasn’t crashed on me since I started using it.


10 thoughts on “Arch Linux + Xmonad

  1. Arch+Xmonad is one sweet combination, personally prefer conkeror myself to vimperator, but for normal firefox right clicking on the tab bar will give an option to undo last close

  2. You can also press Ctrl+Shift+T to restore the most-recently closed tab. Certainly the shortcut in Vimperator works just as well, it’s just a matter of preference. I prefer the Ctrl+Shift+T, myself.

  3. heh, nice writeup 🙂

    on the beginning of my xmonad usage I used xmonad as standalone WM. but, as you mentioned, I missed something, so I decided to run xmonad as a replacement of metacity within gnome. I think this is a quite acceptable compromise 🙂

    and a tip: if you’re a zsh user, you can type ‘program &|’ instead of ‘program & disown’

  4. Hi, Shinobu.

    Thanks for all the useful posts.

    I hope you don’t mind a question or two.

    For some time, I have been contemplating a switch to a rather minimal system based on Arch + xMonad, and several of your posts have persuaded me even more strongly in that direction. However, there is some ‘clipboard’ functionality that I don’t think I can live without.

    Can you confirm that it is possible to have this functionality in such a system (without installing something big like Gnome), and possibly recommend a set of applications that will allow it?

    Specifically, what I need is
    (1) Ability to copy/paste text to/from both terminal and text editor
    (2) Ability to copy text from web browser and PDF viewer
    (3) Ability to choose my own keyboard shortcuts for copy/paste operations

    Thanks again.

  5. Hi Yuta, in my minimal Arch + Xmonad setup, I have not had any real issues with clipboard functionality. First, let me say that there are 2 clipboards regardless of Gnome, KDE, or whatever: (A) the Windows-ish CTRL+C and CTRL+V (if the application supports it, like Firefox), but also (B) the ubiquitous text highlight and “middle mouse button”/SHIFT+INSERT for pasting. These two copy/paste operations do often end up stepping on each other’s toes if you’re working with text (which is like, almost all the time — but they don’t interfere with each other if you are doing CTRL+C on a file, say, in a file browser vs. later on just highlighting some text somewhere else).

    Again, clipboard mode (A) is present if the app supports it. But, most terminals will NOT support CTRL+C to copy text, since CTRL+C is the universal SIGINT signal (to stop execution of a process). (But you can just as easily use clipboard mode (B) instead.) I think most if not all GUI applications support CTRL+C as copy and CTRL+V as paste.

    Clipboard (B) is always present — I can simply highlight text from a console/text output or any text-highlightable area in a GUI app with my mouse, then just click the middle mouse button to paste it (or use SHIFT+INSERT from the keyboard). I think it has something to do with X (Xorg), since this behavior is true in any X environment (XMonad is built on top of X). So, (B) is valid for your points (1) and (2). In fact, I almost always only use this mode to copy/paste text from one app to another — as a general rule, if you can highlight text in the app (basically every app with mouse pointer support, lol), you can always paste it somewhere else with the middle mouse button or SHIFT+INSERT from your keyboard (on Vim, you should turn on “paste mode” before doing this to prevent cascading indentation). But I’ve found that highlighting text in a PDF from Evince, for example, sometimes a bit difficult, but doable (Evince is a bit slow). Yes, you can use Gnome programs without the Gnome DE.

    I think my discussion so far covers your points (1) and (2). As for your point (3), I don’t have the slightest experience with this, because, even after a year with just XMonad, I’ve always relied on clipboard mode (B). But if you’re a veteran Linux user you’ll know that everything is customizable in Linux, so, I’m sure you could find out. Just ask in the various Linux forums out there.

  6. take a look at the xclip utility for console manipulation of either of the cut buffers, PRIMARY or CLIPBOARD

  7. Pingback: Arch Linux: First Impressions « Shinobu’s Secrets

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