Parsec Example Revisited (Again): Parsing Lazy ByteStrings

So in this post, I said that I would parse ByteStrings next time just to show how easy it is. Well, I’ve done just that. Since most of the code is identical, I’m going to post a diff after the full code.

-- LICENSE: PUBLIC DOMAIN
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable, RecordWildCards #-}
module Main where

import qualified Data.ByteString.Lazy as BL
import System.Console.CmdArgs.Implicit
import System.IO
import System.Environment
import System.Exit
import System.Process
import Text.Parsec.Char hiding (upper)
import Text.Parsec.Combinator
import Text.Parsec.Prim
import Text.Parsec.String
import qualified Text.Parsec.ByteString.Lazy as PB
import qualified Text.Parsec.Token as PT
import Text.Parsec.Language (emptyDef)
import Control.Monad.Identity

data Opts = Opts
    { all_devices :: Bool
    , unmount :: Bool
    , unmount_all :: Bool
    , discover :: Bool
    , no_color :: Bool
    } deriving (Data, Typeable, Show, Eq)

progOpts :: Opts
progOpts = Opts
    { all_devices = def &= help "mount all USB devices"
    , unmount = def &= help "choose a USB device to unmount"
    , unmount_all = def &= name "U" &= help "unmount all USB devices"
    , discover = def &= help "list all mounted/unmounted USB devices"
    , no_color = def &= help "disable colors"
    }
    &= details
        [ "Notes:"
        , ""
        , "The default behavior without any options is to try to mount a USB device."
            ++ " Here, `device' means a device under the /dev directory, and in our context, is actually a file system partition."
            ++ " Many USB drives have only a single partition, in which case the term `device' means both the USB drive and the single partition it has."
        , ""
        , "Also, allowing the $USER to execute the mount and umount commands with sudo privileges (sudo visudo) will make things less clunky."
        ]

getOpts :: IO Opts
getOpts = cmdArgs $ progOpts
    &= summary (_PROGRAM_INFO ++ ", " ++ _COPYRIGHT)
    &= program _PROGRAM_NAME
    &= help _PROGRAM_DESC
    &= helpArg [explicit, name "help", name "h"]
    &= versionArg [explicit, name "version", name "v", summary _PROGRAM_INFO]

_PROGRAM_NAME, _PROGRAM_VERSION, _PROGRAM_INFO, _PROGRAM_DESC, _COPYRIGHT :: String
_PROGRAM_NAME = "usbmnt"
_PROGRAM_VERSION = "0.1.0"
_PROGRAM_INFO = _PROGRAM_NAME ++ " version " ++ _PROGRAM_VERSION
_PROGRAM_DESC = "mount/unmount USB device(s)"
_COPYRIGHT = "(C) Linus Arver 2011"

data BlockDevice = BlockDevice
    { shortname :: String
    , uuid :: UUID
    , fsys :: String
    , mountPoint :: MountPoint
    } deriving (Eq)

data MountPoint
    = MPath { path :: FilePath }
    | Swap
    | Unmounted
    | UnknownBlkidVal
    deriving (Eq)

instance Show BlockDevice where
    show BlockDevice{..} = unwords
        [ shortname
        , fsys
        , uuid
        , show mountPoint
        ]

instance Show MountPoint where
    show (MPath path) = path
    show Swap = "Swap"
    show Unmounted = "Unmounted"
    show UnknownBlkidVal = "UnknownBlkidVal"

blockdeviceDefault :: BlockDevice
blockdeviceDefault = BlockDevice
    { shortname = ""
    , uuid = ""
    , fsys = ""
    , mountPoint = MPath {path = ""}
    }

data Config = Config
    { fsyss :: [(String, String)]
    , uuids :: [(UUID, String)]
    } deriving (Eq, Show)

_ALPHANUM :: String
_ALPHANUM = ['a'..'z'] ++ ['A'..'Z'] ++ ['0'..'9']

data Color
    = Red
    | Green
    | Yellow
    | Blue
    | CNone
    deriving (Show, Eq)

colorize :: Color -> String -> String
colorize c s = case c of
    Blue -> "\x1b[1;34m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    Green -> "\x1b[1;32m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    Red -> "\x1b[1;31m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    Yellow -> "\x1b[1;33m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    _ -> s

main :: IO ()
main = do
    hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering
    hSetBuffering stderr NoBuffering
    opts <- getOpts
    homeDir <- getEnv "HOME"
    errNo <- argsCheck opts homeDir
    when (errNo > 0) $ exitWith $ ExitFailure errNo
    (devs, takenPaths) <- getDevices opts
    let configLoc = homeDir ++ "/.usbmnt"
    configSrc <- BL.readFile configLoc
    (confErrNo, config) <- parseConfig configSrc configLoc
    when (confErrNo > 0) $ exitWith $ ExitFailure confErrNo
    let mountablePaths = filter (\p -> not $ elem p takenPaths) $ map (\p -> "/mnt/u" ++ show p) [(0::Int)..]
        devsKV = zip (map show [(1::Int)..]) . zip devs $ mountablePaths
    prog opts config devsKV

argsCheck :: Opts -> String -> IO Int
argsCheck Opts{..} homeDir
    | null homeDir = e "could not get environment variable $HOME" 1
    | otherwise = return 0
    where
        e :: String -> Int -> IO Int
        e str num = errMsg str >> return num

prog :: Opts -> Config -> [(String, (BlockDevice, FilePath))] -> IO ()
prog opts@Opts{..} config devsKV
    | discover = do
        putStrLn "all devices:"
        mapM_ (\(_, (d, _)) -> putStrLn $ cshow d) devsKV
    | otherwise = do
        putStrLn (if (unmount || unmount_all)
            then "USB device(s) to unmount:"
            else "USB device(s) to mount:")
        mapM_ (\(n, (d, _)) -> putStrLn $ "    " ++ n ++ ") " ++ show' d) devsKV
        putStrLn ""
        mountMenu opts config devsKV
    where
        cshow :: BlockDevice -> String
        cshow b@BlockDevice{..}
            | no_color = show b
            | otherwise = case mountPoint of
                Unmounted -> colorize Green $ show b
                MPath _ -> if not $ null $ getUSBMountPath b
                    then colorize Blue $ show b
                    else show b
                _ -> show b
        show' :: BlockDevice -> String
        show' = if not (unmount || unmount_all)
            then show
            else unwords . init . words . show

mountMenu :: Opts -> Config -> [(String, (BlockDevice, FilePath))] -> IO ()
mountMenu Opts{..} config devsKV
    | unmount = if length devsKV == 1
        then do
            putStrLn "only 1 USB device to unmount"
            tryMount False config (snd . head $ devsKV) >>= exitWith
        else chooseDev prompt devsKV (tryMount False config)
    | unmount_all = do
        putStrLn "unmounting all USB devices..."
        mapM_ (tryMount False config) (map snd devsKV)
        return ()
    | all_devices = do
        putStrLn "mounting all USB devices..."
        mapM_ (tryMount True config) (map snd devsKV)
        return ()
    | length devsKV == 1 = do
        putStrLn "only 1 USB device to mount"
        tryMount True config (snd . head $ devsKV) >>= exitWith
    | otherwise = chooseDev prompt devsKV (tryMount True config)
    where
        prompt :: String
        prompt = if (unmount || unmount_all)
            then "choose USB device to unmount (q to exit)"
            else "choose USB device to mount (q to exit)"

chooseDev :: String -> [(String, (BlockDevice, FilePath))] -> ((BlockDevice, FilePath) -> IO ExitCode) -> IO ()
chooseDev prompt devsKV func = do
    putStrLn prompt
    key <- getLine
    case lookup key devsKV of
        Just dev -> func dev >>= exitWith
        _ -> case key of
            "q" -> return ()
            _ -> chooseDev prompt devsKV func

tryMount :: Bool -> Config -> (BlockDevice, FilePath) -> IO ExitCode
tryMount mount config@Config{..} (bd@BlockDevice{..}, mp)
    | (null margs) = do
        errMsg $ "UUID " ++ squote uuid ++ " was not found in config file"
        errMsg $ "filesystem " ++ squote fsys ++ " was also not found in config file"
        errMsg $ "supported file systems: " ++ (unwords $ map fst fsyss)
        exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
    | otherwise = do
    when mount $ do
        if (null $ mountArgsUUID config uuid)
            then putStrLn $ "filesystem " ++ squote fsys ++ " found in config file"
            else putStrLn $ "UUID " ++ squote uuid ++ " found in config file"
        putStrLn $ "using these arguments: " ++ squote margs
    putStr $ (if mount then "" else "un")
        ++ "mounting "
        ++ shortname
        ++ " (" ++ fsys ++ ") "
        ++ (if mount then "to " ++ mp else "from " ++ show mountPoint)
        ++ ".."
    (_, _, _, p) <- createProcess $ cmd margs shortname
    exitStatus <- waitForProcess p
    if (exitStatus == ExitSuccess)
        then do
            putStrLn "OK"
            return ExitSuccess
        else do
            putStr "FAILED\n"
            errMsg $ (if mount
                then "mount error (perhaps " ++ squote mp ++ " does not exist)"
                else "unmount error")
            return (ExitFailure 1)
    where
        margs = mountArgs config bd
        cmd arguments devPath = CreateProcess
            { cmdspec = ShellCommand (if mount
                then "sudo mount -t " ++ arguments ++ " " ++ devPath ++ " " ++ mp ++ " &>/dev/null"
                else "sudo umount " ++ show mountPoint)
            , cwd = Nothing
            , env = Nothing
            , std_in = CreatePipe
            , std_out = CreatePipe
            , std_err = Inherit
            , close_fds = False
            }

mountArgs :: Config -> BlockDevice -> String
mountArgs Config{..} BlockDevice{..} = case lookup uuid uuids of
    Just a -> a
    _ -> case lookup fsys fsyss of
        Just a -> a
        _ -> []

mountArgsUUID :: Config -> UUID -> String
mountArgsUUID Config{..} uuid' = case lookup uuid' uuids of
    Just a -> a
    _ -> []

getDevices :: Opts -> IO ([BlockDevice], [String])
getDevices Opts{..} = do
    (_, sout, _, p) <- createProcess cmdBlkid
    devs <- case sout of
        Just h -> hGetContents h
        Nothing -> return []
    _ <- waitForProcess p
    let devs' = (map (unwords . words)) . drop 2 . lines $ devs
    devs'' <- mapM parseBlkid devs'
    let toMount = filter (\BlockDevice{..} -> mountPoint == Unmounted) devs''
        toUnmount = filter (\dev -> not $ null $ getUSBMountPath dev) devs''
        takenPaths = filter (not . null) . map getUSBMountPath $ devs''
    when (not discover && null toMount && (not (unmount || unmount_all))) $ do
        errMsg $ "cannot find USB devices to mount"
        exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
    when (not discover && null toUnmount && (unmount || unmount_all)) $ do
        errMsg $ "cannot find USB devices to unmount"
        exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
    return $ formatDevs devs'' toMount toUnmount takenPaths
    where
        formatDevs :: [BlockDevice] -> [BlockDevice] -> [BlockDevice] -> [String] -> ([BlockDevice], [String])
        formatDevs ds m um takenPaths
            | discover = (ds, takenPaths)
            | unmount || unmount_all = (um, takenPaths)
            | otherwise = (m, takenPaths)
        cmdBlkid = CreateProcess
            { cmdspec = ShellCommand ("sudo blkid -o list")
            , cwd = Nothing
            , env = Nothing
            , std_in = CreatePipe
            , std_out = CreatePipe
            , std_err = Inherit
            , close_fds = False
            }

getUSBMountPath :: BlockDevice -> String
getUSBMountPath BlockDevice{..} = case mountPoint of
    MPath str -> if take 6 str == "/mnt/u" && (all (\c -> elem c ['0'..'9']) (drop 6 str))
        then str
        else ""
    _ -> ""

errMsg :: String -> IO ()
errMsg msg = hPutStrLn stderr $ "error: " ++ msg

squote :: String -> String
squote s = "`" ++ s ++ "'"

-- Parsing

-- for parsing the computer-generated output of `sudo blkid -o list'
parserIdentifier :: Parser String
parserIdentifier = many1 $ oneOf $ _ALPHANUM ++ "/-_"

parserWhitespace :: Parser String
parserWhitespace = many1 $ oneOf " \t\n\r"

parserMP :: Parser MountPoint
parserMP =
    try ( do
        a <- oneOf "<("
        b <- manyTill anyChar (lookAhead $ (oneOf ">)"))
        _ <- oneOf ">)"
        let mp = case a of
                '<' -> Swap
                '(' -> case b of
                    "not mounted" -> Unmounted
                    _ -> UnknownBlkidVal
                _ -> UnknownBlkidVal
        return mp
        )
    <|> (parserIdentifier >>= (\s -> return MPath {path = s}))
    <?> "blkid's mount point description"

blkidParser :: Parser BlockDevice
blkidParser =
    try ( do
        sname <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        fs <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        _ <- parserIdentifier -- leave out the "label" column, even if it exists
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        mp <- parserMP
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        uid <- parserIdentifier
        eof
        return BlockDevice
           { shortname = sname
           , uuid = uid
           , fsys = fs
           , mountPoint = mp
           }
        )
    <|>
    do  sname <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        fs <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        mp <- parserMP
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        uid <- parserIdentifier
        eof
        return BlockDevice
            { shortname = sname
            , uuid = uid
            , fsys = fs
            , mountPoint = mp
            }
    <?> "5 or 4 fields to parse"

parseBlkid :: String -> IO BlockDevice
parseBlkid src =
    case parse blkidParser "output of `sudo blkid -o list'" src of
        Left parseError -> errMsg (show parseError) >> return blockdeviceDefault
        Right result -> return result

-- we use a LanguageDef so that we can get whitespace/newline parsing for FREE
-- in our .usbmnt file
configDef :: PT.GenLanguageDef BL.ByteString () Identity
configDef = emptyDef
    { PT.commentStart   = ""
    , PT.commentEnd     = ""
    , PT.commentLine    = "#"
    , PT.nestedComments = False
    -- the identStart/identLetter define what a UUID will look like (a
    -- dash-separated hex number)
    , PT.identStart     = oneOf $ ['0'..'9'] ++ ['a'..'f'] ++ ['A'..'F']
    , PT.identLetter    = oneOf $ ['0'..'9'] ++ ['a'..'f'] ++ ['A'..'F'] ++ "-"
    , PT.opStart        = char '.'
    , PT.opLetter       = char '.'
    , PT.reservedOpNames= []
    , PT.reservedNames  = []
    , PT.caseSensitive  = True
    }

-- we call makeTokenParser def and pick out just those we need
lexer :: PT.GenTokenParser BL.ByteString () Identity
lexer = PT.makeTokenParser configDef

p_identifier :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity String
p_identifier = PT.identifier lexer
p_stringLiteral :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity String
p_stringLiteral = PT.stringLiteral lexer
p_whiteSpace :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity ()
p_whiteSpace = PT.whiteSpace lexer
p_braces :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity a -> ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity a
p_braces = PT.braces lexer
p_commaSep :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity a -> ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity [a]
p_commaSep = PT.commaSep lexer
p_symbol :: String -> ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity String
p_symbol = PT.symbol lexer

type UUID = String

assocParser :: PB.Parser String -> PB.Parser (UUID, String)
assocParser keyParser = do
    key <- keyParser
    _ <- many $ oneOf " \t"
    _ <- string "="
    _ <- many $ oneOf " \t"
    mountOpts <- p_stringLiteral
    return (key, mountOpts)
    <?> "a key-value association"

hashParser :: String -> PB.Parser String -> PB.Parser [(String, String)]
hashParser hashName keyParser = do
    _ <- p_symbol hashName
    _ <- p_symbol "="
    a <- p_braces (p_commaSep $ assocParser keyParser)
    return a
    <?> "a " ++ hashName ++ " curly brace block"

configParser :: PB.Parser Config
configParser = do
    p_whiteSpace -- take care of leading whitespace/comments as defined by configDef
    -- parse FSYS_HASH first
    fsyss' <- hashParser "FSYS_HASH" (many1 alphaNum)
    p_whiteSpace
    -- now parse UUID_HASH
    uuids' <- hashParser "UUID_HASH" (p_identifier)
    eof
    return $ Config {fsyss = fsyss', uuids = uuids'}
    <?> "config with FSYS_HASH and UUID_HASH blocks"

parseConfig :: BL.ByteString -> String -> IO (Int, Config)
parseConfig src loc =
    case parse configParser ("config file at " ++ squote loc) src of
        Left parseError -> errMsg (show parseError) >> return (1, Config [] [])
        Right result -> return (0, result)

And here is the diff:

--- usbmnt.hsold	2011-11-09 11:43:02.871554967 -0800
+++ usbmnt.hsnew	2011-11-09 11:43:09.761453413 -0800
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 {-# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable, RecordWildCards #-}
 module Main where
 
+import qualified Data.ByteString.Lazy as BL
 import System.Console.CmdArgs.Implicit
 import System.IO
 import System.Environment
@@ -11,6 +12,7 @@
 import Text.Parsec.Combinator
 import Text.Parsec.Prim
 import Text.Parsec.String
+import qualified Text.Parsec.ByteString.Lazy as PB
 import qualified Text.Parsec.Token as PT
 import Text.Parsec.Language (emptyDef)
 import Control.Monad.Identity
@@ -126,7 +128,7 @@
     when (errNo > 0) $ exitWith $ ExitFailure errNo
     (devs, takenPaths) <- getDevices opts
     let configLoc = homeDir ++ "/.usbmnt"
-    configSrc <- readFile configLoc
+    configSrc <- BL.readFile configLoc
     (confErrNo, config) <- parseConfig configSrc configLoc
     when (confErrNo > 0) $ exitWith $ ExitFailure confErrNo
     let mountablePaths = filter (\p -> not $ elem p takenPaths) $ map (\p -> "/mnt/u" ++ show p) [(0::Int)..]
@@ -379,7 +381,7 @@
 
 -- we use a LanguageDef so that we can get whitespace/newline parsing for FREE
 -- in our .usbmnt file
-configDef :: PT.LanguageDef st
+configDef :: PT.GenLanguageDef BL.ByteString () Identity
 configDef = emptyDef
     { PT.commentStart   = ""
     , PT.commentEnd     = ""
@@ -397,25 +399,25 @@
     }
 
 -- we call makeTokenParser def and pick out just those we need
-lexer :: PT.TokenParser ()
+lexer :: PT.GenTokenParser BL.ByteString () Identity
 lexer = PT.makeTokenParser configDef
 
-p_identifier :: ParsecT String () Identity String
+p_identifier :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity String
 p_identifier = PT.identifier lexer
-p_stringLiteral :: ParsecT String () Identity String
+p_stringLiteral :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity String
 p_stringLiteral = PT.stringLiteral lexer
-p_whiteSpace :: ParsecT String () Identity ()
+p_whiteSpace :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity ()
 p_whiteSpace = PT.whiteSpace lexer
-p_braces :: ParsecT String () Identity a -> ParsecT String () Identity a
+p_braces :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity a -> ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity a
 p_braces = PT.braces lexer
-p_commaSep :: ParsecT String () Identity a -> ParsecT String () Identity [a]
+p_commaSep :: ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity a -> ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity [a]
 p_commaSep = PT.commaSep lexer
-p_symbol :: String -> ParsecT String () Identity String
+p_symbol :: String -> ParsecT BL.ByteString () Identity String
 p_symbol = PT.symbol lexer
 
 type UUID = String
 
-assocParser :: Parser String -> Parser (UUID, String)
+assocParser :: PB.Parser String -> PB.Parser (UUID, String)
 assocParser keyParser = do
     key <- keyParser
     _ <- many $ oneOf " \t"
@@ -425,7 +427,7 @@
     return (key, mountOpts)
     <?> "a key-value association"
 
-hashParser :: String -> Parser String -> Parser [(String, String)]
+hashParser :: String -> PB.Parser String -> PB.Parser [(String, String)]
 hashParser hashName keyParser = do
     _ <- p_symbol hashName
     _ <- p_symbol "="
@@ -433,7 +435,7 @@
     return a
     <?> "a " ++ hashName ++ " curly brace block"
 
-configParser :: Parser Config
+configParser :: PB.Parser Config
 configParser = do
     p_whiteSpace -- take care of leading whitespace/comments as defined by configDef
     -- parse FSYS_HASH first
@@ -445,7 +447,7 @@
     return $ Config {fsyss = fsyss', uuids = uuids'}
     <?> "config with FSYS_HASH and UUID_HASH blocks"
 
-parseConfig :: String -> String -> IO (Int, Config)
+parseConfig :: BL.ByteString -> String -> IO (Int, Config)
 parseConfig src loc =
     case parse configParser ("config file at " ++ squote loc) src of
         Left parseError -> errMsg (show parseError) >> return (1, Config [] [])

Like I said, pretty straightforward, right? The code actually only uses lazy bytestrings for parsing the configuration file. The output of the blkid command is still parsed with the old way (native Haskell strings). The only tricky part is to import the bytestring stuff (Data.ByteString.Lazy and Text.Parsec.ByteString.Lazy) as qualified imports to avoid namespace clashes. The configDef function’s type signature had to change a bit because Parsec 3.1.1 does not have a convenience type alias for LanguageDef that uses bytestrings. To be honest, I couldn’t figure out the type signatures for p_identifier, p_symbol, etc., so I had GHC do it for me. But I mean, it all took like 5-10 minutes. Easy.

So now you can parse bytestrings — lazily!

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Parsec Example Revisited: Custom Configuration File Format Meets the Token Module

As promised, here is a solution to one of the exercises I posed here — namely, to read and parse a configuration file to determine mount options to pass along to the mount command. (No one’s reading this stuff right now, but whatever. Haskell is still that much fun for me!) That is, the previous solution used a rather crude, hard-coded function, fileSystemArgs, as follows:

fileSystemArgs :: String -> [(String, String)]
fileSystemArgs user =
    [ ("ext2", "ext2 -o rw,relatime")
    , ("vfat", "vfat -o rw,uid=" ++ user ++ ",gid=" ++ user)
    ]

I’ve removed this code in favor of reading such options from a configuration file at runtime, as per the exercise. The code has increased to 452 lines (only about 100 more lines than before, with my verbose style), and we make use of the Text.Parsec.Token module to define a super-simple mini-language that we use in the configuration file (two curly brace blocks that define mount options). We only use bits and pieces of it, but it’s still handy because we get some super-convenient parser combinators for free — namely, braces, stringLiteral, and whiteSpace (which are actually aliased to p_braces, p_stringLiteral, and p_whiteSpace in the code). What’s more, these functions intelligently evade trailing whitespace and comment lines automatically. This is why I love Parsec!!!

So without further ado, here’s the code (PUBLIC DOMAIN):

-- LICENSE: PUBLIC DOMAIN
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable, RecordWildCards #-}
module Main where

import System.Console.CmdArgs.Implicit
import System.IO
import System.Environment
import System.Exit
import System.Process
import Text.Parsec.Char hiding (upper)
import Text.Parsec.Combinator
import Text.Parsec.Prim
import Text.Parsec.String
import qualified Text.Parsec.Token as PT
import Text.Parsec.Language (emptyDef)
import Control.Monad.Identity

data Opts = Opts
    { all_devices :: Bool
    , unmount :: Bool
    , unmount_all :: Bool
    , discover :: Bool
    , no_color :: Bool
    } deriving (Data, Typeable, Show, Eq)

progOpts :: Opts
progOpts = Opts
    { all_devices = def &= help "mount all USB devices"
    , unmount = def &= help "choose a USB device to unmount"
    , unmount_all = def &= name "U" &= help "unmount all USB devices"
    , discover = def &= help "list all mounted/unmounted USB devices"
    , no_color = def &= help "disable colors"
    }
    &= details
        [ "Notes:"
        , ""
        , "The default behavior without any options is to try to mount a USB device."
            ++ " Here, `device' means a device under the /dev directory, and in our context, is actually a file system partition."
            ++ " Many USB drives have only a single partition, in which case the term `device' means both the USB drive and the single partition it has."
        , ""
        , "Also, allowing the $USER to execute the mount and umount commands with sudo privileges (sudo visudo) will make things less clunky."
        ]

getOpts :: IO Opts
getOpts = cmdArgs $ progOpts
    &= summary (_PROGRAM_INFO ++ ", " ++ _COPYRIGHT)
    &= program _PROGRAM_NAME
    &= help _PROGRAM_DESC
    &= helpArg [explicit, name "help", name "h"]
    &= versionArg [explicit, name "version", name "v", summary _PROGRAM_INFO]

_PROGRAM_NAME, _PROGRAM_VERSION, _PROGRAM_INFO, _PROGRAM_DESC, _COPYRIGHT :: String
_PROGRAM_NAME = "usbmnt"
_PROGRAM_VERSION = "0.1.0"
_PROGRAM_INFO = _PROGRAM_NAME ++ " version " ++ _PROGRAM_VERSION
_PROGRAM_DESC = "mount/unmount USB device(s)"
_COPYRIGHT = "PUBLIC DOMAIN"

data BlockDevice = BlockDevice
    { shortname :: String
    , uuid :: UUID
    , fsys :: String
    , mountPoint :: MountPoint
    } deriving (Eq)

data MountPoint
    = MPath { path :: FilePath }
    | Swap
    | Unmounted
    | UnknownBlkidVal
    deriving (Eq)

instance Show BlockDevice where
    show BlockDevice{..} = unwords
        [ shortname
        , fsys
        , uuid
        , show mountPoint
        ]

instance Show MountPoint where
    show (MPath path) = path
    show Swap = "Swap"
    show Unmounted = "Unmounted"
    show UnknownBlkidVal = "UnknownBlkidVal"

blockdeviceDefault :: BlockDevice
blockdeviceDefault = BlockDevice
    { shortname = ""
    , uuid = ""
    , fsys = ""
    , mountPoint = MPath {path = ""}
    }

data Config = Config
    { fsyss :: [(String, String)]
    , uuids :: [(UUID, String)]
    } deriving (Eq, Show)

_ALPHANUM :: String
_ALPHANUM = ['a'..'z'] ++ ['A'..'Z'] ++ ['0'..'9']

data Color
    = Red
    | Green
    | Yellow
    | Blue
    | CNone
    deriving (Show, Eq)

colorize :: Color -> String -> String
colorize c s = case c of
    Blue -> "\x1b[1;34m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    Green -> "\x1b[1;32m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    Red -> "\x1b[1;31m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    Yellow -> "\x1b[1;33m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    _ -> s

main :: IO ()
main = do
    hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering
    hSetBuffering stderr NoBuffering
    opts <- getOpts
    homeDir <- getEnv "HOME"
    errNo <- argsCheck opts homeDir
    when (errNo > 0) $ exitWith $ ExitFailure errNo
    (devs, takenPaths) <- getDevices opts
    let configLoc = homeDir ++ "/.usbmnt"
    configSrc <- readFile configLoc
    (confErrNo, config) <- parseConfig configSrc configLoc
    when (confErrNo > 0) $ exitWith $ ExitFailure confErrNo
    let mountablePaths = filter (\p -> not $ elem p takenPaths) $ map (\p -> "/mnt/u" ++ show p) [(0::Int)..]
        devsKV = zip (map show [(1::Int)..]) . zip devs $ mountablePaths
    prog opts config devsKV

argsCheck :: Opts -> String -> IO Int
argsCheck Opts{..} homeDir
    | null homeDir = e "could not get environment variable $HOME" 1
    | otherwise = return 0
    where
        e :: String -> Int -> IO Int
        e str num = errMsg str >> return num

prog :: Opts -> Config -> [(String, (BlockDevice, FilePath))] -> IO ()
prog opts@Opts{..} config devsKV
    | discover = do
        putStrLn "all devices:"
        mapM_ (\(_, (d, _)) -> putStrLn $ cshow d) devsKV
    | otherwise = do
        putStrLn (if (unmount || unmount_all)
            then "USB device(s) to unmount:"
            else "USB device(s) to mount:")
        mapM_ (\(n, (d, _)) -> putStrLn $ "    " ++ n ++ ") " ++ show' d) devsKV
        putStrLn ""
        mountMenu opts config devsKV
    where
        cshow :: BlockDevice -> String
        cshow b@BlockDevice{..}
            | no_color = show b
            | otherwise = case mountPoint of
                Unmounted -> colorize Green $ show b
                MPath _ -> if not $ null $ getUSBMountPath b
                    then colorize Blue $ show b
                    else show b
                _ -> show b
        show' :: BlockDevice -> String
        show' = if not (unmount || unmount_all)
            then show
            else unwords . init . words . show

mountMenu :: Opts -> Config -> [(String, (BlockDevice, FilePath))] -> IO ()
mountMenu Opts{..} config devsKV
    | unmount = if length devsKV == 1
        then do
            putStrLn "only 1 USB device to unmount"
            tryMount False config (snd . head $ devsKV) >>= exitWith
        else chooseDev prompt devsKV (tryMount False config)
    | unmount_all = do
        putStrLn "unmounting all USB devices..."
        mapM_ (tryMount False config) (map snd devsKV)
        return ()
    | all_devices = do
        putStrLn "mounting all USB devices..."
        mapM_ (tryMount True config) (map snd devsKV)
        return ()
    | length devsKV == 1 = do
        putStrLn "only 1 USB device to mount"
        tryMount True config (snd . head $ devsKV) >>= exitWith
    | otherwise = chooseDev prompt devsKV (tryMount True config)
    where
        prompt :: String
        prompt = if (unmount || unmount_all)
            then "choose USB device to unmount (q to exit)"
            else "choose USB device to mount (q to exit)"

chooseDev :: String -> [(String, (BlockDevice, FilePath))] -> ((BlockDevice, FilePath) -> IO ExitCode) -> IO ()
chooseDev prompt devsKV func = do
    putStrLn prompt
    key <- getLine
    case lookup key devsKV of
        Just dev -> func dev >>= exitWith
        _ -> case key of
            "q" -> return ()
            _ -> chooseDev prompt devsKV func

tryMount :: Bool -> Config -> (BlockDevice, FilePath) -> IO ExitCode
tryMount mount config@Config{..} (bd@BlockDevice{..}, mp)
    | (null margs) = do
        errMsg $ "UUID " ++ squote uuid ++ " was not found in config file"
        errMsg $ "filesystem " ++ squote fsys ++ " was also not found in config file"
        errMsg $ "supported file systems: " ++ (unwords $ map fst fsyss)
        exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
    | otherwise = do
    when mount $ do
        if (null $ mountArgsUUID config uuid)
            then putStrLn $ "filesystem " ++ squote fsys ++ " found in config file"
            else putStrLn $ "UUID " ++ squote uuid ++ " found in config file"
        putStrLn $ "using these arguments: " ++ squote margs
    putStr $ (if mount then "" else "un")
        ++ "mounting "
        ++ shortname
        ++ " (" ++ fsys ++ ") "
        ++ (if mount then "to " ++ mp else "from " ++ show mountPoint)
        ++ ".."
    (_, _, _, p) <- createProcess $ cmd margs shortname
    exitStatus <- waitForProcess p
    if (exitStatus == ExitSuccess)
        then do
            putStrLn "OK"
            return ExitSuccess
        else do
            putStr "FAILED\n"
            errMsg $ (if mount
                then "mount error (perhaps " ++ squote mp ++ " does not exist)"
                else "unmount error")
            return (ExitFailure 1)
    where
        margs = mountArgs config bd
        cmd arguments devPath = CreateProcess
            { cmdspec = ShellCommand (if mount
                then "sudo mount -t " ++ arguments ++ " " ++ devPath ++ " " ++ mp ++ " &>/dev/null"
                else "sudo umount " ++ show mountPoint)
            , cwd = Nothing
            , env = Nothing
            , std_in = CreatePipe
            , std_out = CreatePipe
            , std_err = Inherit
            , close_fds = False
            }

mountArgs :: Config -> BlockDevice -> String
mountArgs Config{..} BlockDevice{..} = case lookup uuid uuids of
    Just a -> a
    _ -> case lookup fsys fsyss of
        Just a -> a
        _ -> []

mountArgsUUID :: Config -> UUID -> String
mountArgsUUID Config{..} uuid' = case lookup uuid' uuids of
    Just a -> a
    _ -> []

getDevices :: Opts -> IO ([BlockDevice], [String])
getDevices Opts{..} = do
    (_, sout, _, p) <- createProcess cmdBlkid
    devs <- case sout of
        Just h -> hGetContents h
        Nothing -> return []
    _ <- waitForProcess p
    let devs' = (map (unwords . words)) . drop 2 . lines $ devs
    devs'' <- mapM parseBlkid devs'
    let toMount = filter (\BlockDevice{..} -> mountPoint == Unmounted) devs''
        toUnmount = filter (\dev -> not $ null $ getUSBMountPath dev) devs''
        takenPaths = filter (not . null) . map getUSBMountPath $ devs''
    when (not discover && null toMount && (not (unmount || unmount_all))) $ do
        errMsg $ "cannot find USB devices to mount"
        exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
    when (not discover && null toUnmount && (unmount || unmount_all)) $ do
        errMsg $ "cannot find USB devices to unmount"
        exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
    return $ formatDevs devs'' toMount toUnmount takenPaths
    where
        formatDevs :: [BlockDevice] -> [BlockDevice] -> [BlockDevice] -> [String] -> ([BlockDevice], [String])
        formatDevs ds m um takenPaths
            | discover = (ds, takenPaths)
            | unmount || unmount_all = (um, takenPaths)
            | otherwise = (m, takenPaths)
        cmdBlkid = CreateProcess
            { cmdspec = ShellCommand ("sudo blkid -o list")
            , cwd = Nothing
            , env = Nothing
            , std_in = CreatePipe
            , std_out = CreatePipe
            , std_err = Inherit
            , close_fds = False
            }

getUSBMountPath :: BlockDevice -> String
getUSBMountPath BlockDevice{..} = case mountPoint of
    MPath str -> if take 6 str == "/mnt/u" && (all (\c -> elem c ['0'..'9']) (drop 6 str))
        then str
        else ""
    _ -> ""

errMsg :: String -> IO ()
errMsg msg = hPutStrLn stderr $ "error: " ++ msg

squote :: String -> String
squote s = "`" ++ s ++ "'"

-- Parsing

-- for parsing the computer-generated output of `sudo blkid -o list'
parserIdentifier :: Parser String
parserIdentifier = many1 $ oneOf $ _ALPHANUM ++ "/-_"

parserWhitespace :: Parser String
parserWhitespace = many1 $ oneOf " \t\n\r"

parserMP :: Parser MountPoint
parserMP =
    try ( do
        a <- oneOf "<("
        b <- manyTill anyChar (lookAhead $ (oneOf ">)"))
        _ <- oneOf ">)"
        let mp = case a of
                '<' -> Swap
                '(' -> case b of
                    "not mounted" -> Unmounted
                    _ -> UnknownBlkidVal
                _ -> UnknownBlkidVal
        return mp
        )
    <|> (parserIdentifier >>= (\s -> return MPath {path = s}))
    <?> "blkid's mount point description"

blkidParser :: Parser BlockDevice
blkidParser =
    try ( do
        sname <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        fs <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        _ <- parserIdentifier -- leave out the "label" column, even if it exists
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        mp <- parserMP
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        uid <- parserIdentifier
        eof
        return BlockDevice
           { shortname = sname
           , uuid = uid
           , fsys = fs
           , mountPoint = mp
           }
        )
    <|>
    do  sname <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        fs <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        mp <- parserMP
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        uid <- parserIdentifier
        eof
        return BlockDevice
            { shortname = sname
            , uuid = uid
            , fsys = fs
            , mountPoint = mp
            }
    <?> "5 or 4 fields to parse"

parseBlkid :: String -> IO BlockDevice
parseBlkid src =
    case parse blkidParser "output of `sudo blkid -o list'" src of
        Left parseError -> errMsg (show parseError) >> return blockdeviceDefault
        Right result -> return result

-- we use a LanguageDef so that we can get whitespace/newline parsing for FREE
-- in our .usbmnt file
configDef :: PT.LanguageDef st
configDef = emptyDef
    { PT.commentStart   = ""
    , PT.commentEnd     = ""
    , PT.commentLine    = "#"
    , PT.nestedComments = False
    -- the identStart/identLetter define what a UUID will look like (a
    -- dash-separated hex number)
    , PT.identStart     = oneOf $ ['0'..'9'] ++ ['a'..'f'] ++ ['A'..'F']
    , PT.identLetter    = oneOf $ ['0'..'9'] ++ ['a'..'f'] ++ ['A'..'F'] ++ "-"
    , PT.opStart        = char '.'
    , PT.opLetter       = char '.'
    , PT.reservedOpNames= []
    , PT.reservedNames  = []
    , PT.caseSensitive  = True
    }

-- we call makeTokenParser def and pick out just those we need
lexer :: PT.TokenParser ()
lexer = PT.makeTokenParser configDef

p_identifier :: ParsecT String () Identity String
p_identifier = PT.identifier lexer
p_stringLiteral :: ParsecT String () Identity String
p_stringLiteral = PT.stringLiteral lexer
p_whiteSpace :: ParsecT String () Identity ()
p_whiteSpace = PT.whiteSpace lexer
p_braces :: ParsecT String () Identity a -> ParsecT String () Identity a
p_braces = PT.braces lexer
p_commaSep :: ParsecT String () Identity a -> ParsecT String () Identity [a]
p_commaSep = PT.commaSep lexer
p_symbol :: String -> ParsecT String () Identity String
p_symbol = PT.symbol lexer

type UUID = String

assocParser :: Parser String -> Parser (UUID, String)
assocParser keyParser = do
    key <- keyParser
    _ <- many $ oneOf " \t"
    _ <- string "="
    _ <- many $ oneOf " \t"
    mountOpts <- p_stringLiteral
    return (key, mountOpts)
    <?> "a key-value association"

hashParser :: String -> Parser String -> Parser [(String, String)]
hashParser hashName keyParser = do
    _ <- p_symbol hashName
    _ <- p_symbol "="
    a <- p_braces (p_commaSep $ assocParser keyParser)
    return a
    <?> "a " ++ hashName ++ " curly brace block"

configParser :: Parser Config
configParser = do
    p_whiteSpace -- take care of leading whitespace/comments as defined by configDef
    -- parse FSYS_HASH first
    fsyss' <- hashParser "FSYS_HASH" (many1 alphaNum)
    p_whiteSpace
    -- now parse UUID_HASH
    uuids' <- hashParser "UUID_HASH" (p_identifier)
    eof
    return $ Config {fsyss = fsyss', uuids = uuids'}
    <?> "config with FSYS_HASH and UUID_HASH blocks"

parseConfig :: String -> String -> IO (Int, Config)
parseConfig src loc =
    case parse configParser ("config file at " ++ squote loc) src of
        Left parseError -> errMsg (show parseError) >> return (1, Config [] [])
        Right result -> return (0, result)

And here is the new ~/.usbmnt configuration file that it parses:

# UUID/filesystem mountoptions

# the FSYS_HASH is used as a fallback, if the detected device does not match one of the UUIDs listed above
FSYS_HASH =
    { ext2 = "ext2 -o rw,relatime"
    , vfat = "vfat -o rw,uid=$USER,gid=$USER"
    }

# UUID is pretty straightforward; use blkid to figure it out for a particular device
# as for mount options, these are passed directly into the shell (/bin/sh; see createProcess in System.Process), so you can use things like $USER

# UUID_HASH = {} # if you have no particular device-specific settings

UUID_HASH =
    { 7CBF-B36F =                             "vfat -o rw,uid=$USER,gid=$USER"    # (256 MiB) SD card
    , 9c359666-a4e6-a894-3475-e6cd53660de8 =  "ext2 -o rw,relatime"               # (2 GiB) USB 2.0 thumbdrive
    }

See how there are a bunch of comment lines starting with ‘#‘? With our configDef function which defines a language with “#” as the commentLine, our convenience functions p_whiteSpace, p_symbol, etc. all avoid comment lines automatically! Sure, it’s a trivial automation here, but you can also define multiline comments and more (which I didn’t bother to do since the configuration file format I designed is so simple). I really like how I can robustly parse comment-laden text strings with such ease!

Can you imagine doing the same thing with regular expressions? I used to use regexes for parsing things like this back when I was still a very naive programmer, and then Parsec opened up the wonderful world of parsers for me (especially all the cool convenience functions you get for FREE!). The new rule I have is: use regular expressions to strictly do search-and-replace for unchanging/uniform input (using the Text.Regex.PCRE module), and to use Parsec for everything else. There’s no excuse to put off learning how to use Parsec!

Anyway, the code I posted is a working example and I really do use it in my machines! And all you need is a POSIX system with GHC, Parsec, and CmdArgs to use it.

Next time, I’ll do the second exercise and read in and parse ByteStrings instead of native Haskell Strings — just to show you how trivial the changes are!

Parsec and CmdArgs in Action: A Small Example

In this post, I mentioned that I wrote a ~300 line Haskell program to take care of mounting/unmounting USB drives (especially useful for window-manager-only users like myself). Well, I’ve been using my program (creatively named usbmnt) very happily so far and would like to release it for public consumption. It’s released into the PUBLIC DOMAIN, because that’s how I roll, baby!

-- LICENSE: PUBLIC DOMAIN
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable, RecordWildCards #-}
module Main where

import Control.Monad (when)
import System.Console.CmdArgs.Implicit
import System.IO
import System.Environment
import System.Exit
import System.Process
import Text.Parsec.Char hiding (upper)
import Text.Parsec.Combinator
import Text.Parsec.Prim
import Text.Parsec.String

data Opts = Opts
    { all_devices :: Bool
    , unmount :: Bool
    , unmount_all :: Bool
    , discover :: Bool
    , no_color :: Bool
    } deriving (Data, Typeable, Show, Eq)

progOpts :: Opts
progOpts = Opts
    { all_devices = def &= help "mount all USB devices"
    , unmount = def &= help "choose a USB device to unmount"
    , unmount_all = def &= name "U" &= help "unmount all USB devices"
    , discover = def &= help "list all mounted/unmounted USB devices"
    , no_color = def &= help "disable colors"
    }
    &= details
        [ "Notes:"
        , ""
        , "The default behavior without any options is to try to mount a USB device."
            ++ " Here, `device' means a device under the /dev directory, and in our context, is actually a file system partition."
            ++ " Many USB drives have only a single partition, in which case the term `device' means both the USB drive and the single partition it has."
        , ""
        , "Also, allowing the $USER to execute the mount and umount commands with sudo privileges (sudo visudo) will make things less clunky."
        ]

getOpts :: IO Opts
getOpts = cmdArgs $ progOpts
    &= summary (_PROGRAM_INFO ++ ", " ++ _COPYRIGHT)
    &= program _PROGRAM_NAME
    &= help _PROGRAM_DESC
    &= helpArg [explicit, name "help", name "h"]
    &= versionArg [explicit, name "version", name "v", summary _PROGRAM_INFO]

_PROGRAM_NAME, _PROGRAM_VERSION, _PROGRAM_INFO, _PROGRAM_DESC, _COPYRIGHT :: String
_PROGRAM_NAME = "usbmnt"
_PROGRAM_VERSION = "0.0.1"
_PROGRAM_INFO = _PROGRAM_NAME ++ " version " ++ _PROGRAM_VERSION
_PROGRAM_DESC = "mount/unmount USB device(s)"
_COPYRIGHT = "PUBLIC DOMAIN"

data BlockDevice = BlockDevice
    { shortname :: String
    , uuid :: String
    , fsys :: String
    , mountPoint :: MountPoint
    } deriving (Eq)

data MountPoint
    = MPath { path :: FilePath }
    | Swap
    | Unmounted
    | UnknownBlkidVal
    deriving (Eq)

instance Show BlockDevice where
    show BlockDevice{..} = unwords
        [ shortname
        , fsys
        , uuid
        , show mountPoint
        ]

instance Show MountPoint where
    show (MPath path) = path
    show Swap = "Swap"
    show Unmounted = "Unmounted"
    show UnknownBlkidVal = "UnknownBlkidVal"

blockdeviceDefault :: BlockDevice
blockdeviceDefault = BlockDevice
    { shortname = ""
    , uuid = ""
    , fsys = ""
    , mountPoint = MPath {path = ""}
    }

_ALPHANUM :: String
_ALPHANUM = ['a'..'z'] ++ ['A'..'Z'] ++ ['0'..'9']

data Color
    = Red
    | Green
    | Yellow
    | Blue
    | CNone
    deriving (Show, Eq)

colorize :: Color -> String -> String
colorize c s = case c of
    Blue -> "\x1b[1;34m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    Green -> "\x1b[1;32m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    Red -> "\x1b[1;31m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    Yellow -> "\x1b[1;33m" ++ s ++ "\x1b[0m"
    _ -> s

main :: IO ()
main = do
    hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering
    hSetBuffering stderr NoBuffering
    opts <- getOpts
    user <- getEnv "USER"
    errNo <- argsCheck opts user
    when (errNo > 0) $ exitWith $ ExitFailure errNo
    (devs, takenPaths) <- getDevices opts
    let mountablePaths = filter (\p -> not $ elem p takenPaths) $ map (\p -> "/mnt/u" ++ show p) [(0::Int)..]
        devsKV = zip (map show [(1::Int)..]) . zip devs $ mountablePaths
    prog opts user devsKV

argsCheck :: Opts -> String -> IO Int
argsCheck Opts{..} user
    | null user = e "could not get environment variable $USER" 1
    | otherwise = return 0
    where
        e :: String -> Int -> IO Int
        e str num = errMsg str >> return num

prog :: Opts -> String -> [(String, (BlockDevice, FilePath))] -> IO ()
prog opts@Opts{..} user devsKV
    | discover = do
        putStrLn "all devices:"
        mapM_ (\(_, (d, _)) -> putStrLn $ cshow d) devsKV
    | otherwise = do
        putStrLn (if (unmount || unmount_all)
            then "USB device(s) to unmount:"
            else "USB device(s) to mount:")
        mapM_ (\(n, (d, _)) -> putStrLn $ "    " ++ n ++ ") " ++ show' d) devsKV
        putStrLn ""
        mountMenu opts user devsKV
    where
        cshow :: BlockDevice -> String
        cshow b@BlockDevice{..}
            | no_color = show b
            | otherwise = case mountPoint of
                Unmounted -> colorize Green $ show b
                MPath _ -> if not $ null $ getUSBMountPath b
                    then colorize Blue $ show b
                    else show b
                _ -> show b
        show' :: BlockDevice -> String
        show' = if not (unmount || unmount_all)
            then show
            else unwords . init . words . show

mountMenu :: Opts -> String -> [(String, (BlockDevice, FilePath))] -> IO ()
mountMenu Opts{..} user devsKV
    | unmount = if length devsKV == 1
        then do
            putStrLn "only 1 USB device to unmount"
            tryMount False user (snd . head $ devsKV) >>= exitWith
        else chooseDev prompt user devsKV (tryMount False)
    | unmount_all = do
        putStrLn "unmounting all USB devices..."
        mapM_ (tryMount False user) (map snd devsKV)
        return ()
    | all_devices = do
        putStrLn "mounting all USB devices..."
        mapM_ (tryMount True user) (map snd devsKV)
        return ()
    | length devsKV == 1 = do
        putStrLn "only 1 USB device to mount"
        tryMount True user (snd . head $ devsKV) >>= exitWith
    | otherwise = chooseDev prompt  user devsKV (tryMount True)
    where
        prompt :: String
        prompt = if (unmount || unmount_all)
            then "choose USB device to unmount (q to exit)"
            else "choose USB device to mount (q to exit)"

chooseDev :: String -> String -> [(String, (BlockDevice, FilePath))] -> (String -> (BlockDevice, FilePath) -> IO ExitCode) -> IO ()
chooseDev prompt user devsKV func = do
    putStrLn prompt
    key <- getLine
    case lookup key devsKV of
        Just dev -> func user dev >>= exitWith
        _ -> case key of
            "q" -> return ()
            _ -> chooseDev prompt user devsKV func

tryMount :: Bool -> String -> (BlockDevice, FilePath) -> IO ExitCode
tryMount mount user (BlockDevice{..}, mp) = do
    when (null $ mountArgs fsys user) $ do
        errMsg $ "unsupported file system " ++ squote fsys ++ "\nsupported file systems: " ++ (unwords $ map fst (fileSystemArgs user))
        exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
    putStr $ (if mount then "" else "un")
        ++ "mounting "
        ++ shortname
        ++ " (" ++ fsys ++ ") "
        ++ (if mount then "to " ++ mp else "from " ++ show mountPoint)
        ++ ".."
    (_, _, _, p) <- createProcess $ cmd (mountArgs fsys user) shortname
    exitStatus <- waitForProcess p
    if (exitStatus == ExitSuccess)
        then do
            putStrLn "OK"
            return ExitSuccess
        else do
            putStr "FAILED\n"
            errMsg $ (if mount
                then "mount error (perhaps " ++ squote mp ++ " does not exist)"
                else "unmount error")
            return (ExitFailure 1)
    where
        cmd arguments devPath = CreateProcess
            { cmdspec = ShellCommand (if mount
                then "sudo mount -t " ++ arguments ++ " " ++ devPath ++ " " ++ mp ++ " &>/dev/null"
                else "sudo umount " ++ show mountPoint)
            , cwd = Nothing
            , env = Nothing
            , std_in = CreatePipe
            , std_out = CreatePipe
            , std_err = Inherit
            , close_fds = False
            }

fileSystemArgs :: String -> [(String, String)]
fileSystemArgs user =
    [ ("ext2", "ext2 -o rw,relatime")
    , ("vfat", "vfat -o rw,uid=" ++ user ++ ",gid=" ++ user)
    ]

mountArgs :: String -> String -> String
mountArgs fsys user = case lookup fsys (fileSystemArgs user) of
    Just a -> a
    _ -> []

getDevices :: Opts -> IO ([BlockDevice], [String])
getDevices Opts{..} = do
    (_, sout, _, p) <- createProcess cmdBlkid
    devs <- case sout of
        Just h -> hGetContents h
        Nothing -> return []
    _ <- waitForProcess p
    let devs' = (map (unwords . words)) . drop 2 . lines $ devs
    devs'' <- mapM parseBlkid devs'
    let toMount = filter (\BlockDevice{..} -> mountPoint == Unmounted) devs''
        toUnmount = filter (\dev -> not $ null $ getUSBMountPath dev) devs''
        takenPaths = filter (not . null) . map getUSBMountPath $ devs''
    when (not discover && null toMount && (not (unmount || unmount_all))) $ do
        errMsg $ "cannot find USB devices to mount"
        exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
    when (not discover && null toUnmount && (unmount || unmount_all)) $ do
        errMsg $ "cannot find USB devices to unmount"
        exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
    return $ formatDevs devs'' toMount toUnmount takenPaths
    where
        formatDevs :: [BlockDevice] -> [BlockDevice] -> [BlockDevice] -> [String] -> ([BlockDevice], [String])
        formatDevs ds m um takenPaths
            | discover = (ds, takenPaths)
            | unmount || unmount_all = (um, takenPaths)
            | otherwise = (m, takenPaths)
        cmdBlkid = CreateProcess
            { cmdspec = ShellCommand ("sudo blkid -o list")
            , cwd = Nothing
            , env = Nothing
            , std_in = CreatePipe
            , std_out = CreatePipe
            , std_err = Inherit
            , close_fds = False
            }

getUSBMountPath :: BlockDevice -> String
getUSBMountPath BlockDevice{..} = case mountPoint of
    MPath str -> if take 6 str == "/mnt/u" && (all (\c -> elem c ['0'..'9']) (drop 6 str))
        then str
        else ""
    _ -> ""

errMsg :: String -> IO ()
errMsg msg = hPutStrLn stderr $ "error: " ++ msg

squote :: String -> String
squote s = "`" ++ s ++ "'"

-- Parsing
parserIdentifier :: Parser String
parserIdentifier = many1 $ oneOf $ _ALPHANUM ++ "/-_"

parserWhitespace :: Parser String
parserWhitespace = many1 $ oneOf " \t\n\r"

parserMP :: Parser MountPoint
parserMP =
    try ( do
        a <- oneOf "<(" -- "(not mounted)" or "<swap>"
        b <- manyTill anyChar (lookAhead $ (oneOf ">)"))
        _ <- oneOf ">)"
        let mp = case a of
                '<' -> Swap
                '(' -> case b of
                    "not mounted" -> Unmounted
                    _ -> UnknownBlkidVal
                _ -> UnknownBlkidVal
        return mp
        )
    <|> (parserIdentifier >>= (\s -> return MPath {path = s})) -- e.g., "/mnt/blah"
    <?> "blkid's mount point description"

blkidParser :: Parser BlockDevice
blkidParser =
    try ( do
        sname <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        fs <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        _ <- parserIdentifier -- leave out the "label" column, even if it exists
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        mp <- parserMP
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        uid <- parserIdentifier
        eof
        return BlockDevice
           { shortname = sname
           , uuid = uid
           , fsys = fs
           , mountPoint = mp
           }
        )
    <|>
    do  sname <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        fs <- parserIdentifier
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        mp <- parserMP
        _ <- parserWhitespace
        uid <- parserIdentifier
        eof
        return BlockDevice
            { shortname = sname
            , uuid = uid
            , fsys = fs
            , mountPoint = mp
            }
    <?> "5 or 4 fields to parse"

parseBlkid :: String -> IO BlockDevice
parseBlkid src =
    case parse blkidParser "output of `sudo blkid -o list'" src of
        Left parseError -> errMsg (show parseError) >> return blockdeviceDefault
        Right result -> return result

This example compiles with ghc –make -O2 -Wall -Werror. The only 2 dependencies are Parsec, and CmdArgs.

Looking back at it, I think it’s a great example of a real-world Haskell program out in the wild. It uses Parsec to correctly parse the output from blkid, CmdArgs for sane argument handling, and also does some system calls with the createProcess command. Coding-style-wise, it uses the simple where expression wherever possible, for maximum readability and tries to keep leading whitespace to a minimum. The code is written very verbosely, with explicit type signatures for every function, because, well, it helps me keep my sanity.

I think the code is pretty straightforward. It only supports 2 file systems: the ext2 type (recommended for Linux-only USB drives), and vfat (the FAT file system used for legacy Windows support), but this could be easily extended to support ext3, ext4, or any other file system, since it just wraps around the standard mount command.

The only tricky part is blkidParser, which tries to parse 5 fields or 4 fields. The reason behind this is because blkid -o’s output looks like this:

$ sudo blkid -o list
device       fs_type label    mount point      UUID
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/dev/sda1    ntfs             /mnt/windows-xp  XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
/dev/sda2    ext4             /                XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX
/dev/sda3    ext4             /home            XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX
/dev/sda6    swap             <swap>           XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX
/dev/sda5    ext4             /mnt/data        XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX
/dev/sdb1    ext2             (not mounted)    XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX
/dev/sdc1    vfat             (not mounted)    XXXX-XXXX

Sometimes, the label field is empty, as in the example above. So, we will end up with just 4 fields instead of 5.

I hope this sample, working program will help newbies out (esp. you who are frustrated by Real World Haskell’s clunky Parsec examples…). And for those looking to actually use it themselves for easy USB mounting/unmounting, here are some additional notes:

  • Create mount points (i.e., directories) /mnt/u0, /mnt/u1, /mnt/u2, etc. so that the mount command won’t choke.
  • Use shell aliases or keyboard hotkeys to avoid typing out “usbmnt -U” every single time.
  • Tweak the options passed to the mount command to suit your needs (see the fileSystemArgs function).

(1) A simple exercise would be to extend usbmnt so that it reads a very simple configuration file to detect the right user-defined options to pass to mount depending on the partition’s UUID. The only additional thing you would have to do is read a file from disk and store it as a String.

(2) An eye-opening exercises for Parsec newcomers would be to pass to the parsing functions a ByteString instead of String. (The transition to a ByteString is extremely straight-forward, and requires minimal changes.)

I will do the exercises myself later on and post them in a couple weeks at the latest.

UPDATE: December 1, 2011: Here are some convenience links for those coming in from Google for the solutions to the 2 exercises: Solution for #1 Solution for #2

Happy hacking!

EDIT: December 1, 2011: Fix typo.